KIN 312 Motor Control - Dr. Wu - Week 1 lecture: What is a motor skill?
KIN 312 Motor Control - Dr. Wu - Week 1 lecture: What is a motor skill? KIN 312
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Wong on Monday August 22, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 312 at California State University Long Beach taught by Wilbur Wu in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Motor Control in Kinesiology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 08/22/16
KIN 312 – Week 1: 8/22/16 Natalie Wong ***These notes are derived from the powerpoint lecture, “What is a Motor Skill?,” presented by Dr. Will Wu at CSULB. I. What is a Motor Skill? a. A motor skill has the following characteristics: It has an action goal It is performed voluntarily It requires body movement to achieve the action goal b. Controversial Example discussed in class Blinking! – can be considered voluntary (if used as a form of nonverbal communication) or involuntary (reflex to something coming towards the face or impedance of the eye II. The Classification of Motor Skills a. Not all motor skills are the same b. Classification is similar to how animals are grouped into species c. Motor skills are grouped based on aspects of the skill III. Actions vs Movements a. Actions Action = goal directed activity that includes body movements Ex: walking, jumping, kicking, writing b. Movements Movement = body/limb participation in a performed action Ex: arm swing (movement) in throwing a ball (action) Measured by : - Kinematics = motion of objects without measurement of force - Kinetics = measurements of the rates of reactions c. When analyzing a motor skill the action can be the same, but the movements can be varied Example given in class: watching the two long jumpers - Action = long jump - Movements = (different) launch/jump/air time, running mechanics, acceleration(same/similar) projection angle, running velocity, take off point, foot position upon landing d. Movements vary based on the matter of preference for performance since no one athlete is like the other e. Movements are modified based on success or failure of performance f. Why make a distinction between actions and movements? People initially learn actions People adapt movements to achieve goals Different means of measurement IV. Why Classify Motor Skills? a. Similarities and differences among skills – classification is like a dichotomous key for skills b. Better understanding of skills working within various professions c. Basis for general conclusions about how humans perform and learn skills V. Motor Skill Classification Systems KIN 312 – Week 1: 8/22/16 Natalie Wong a. 1Dimensional (very vague) – considerations Size of primary muscle(s) required - Gross motor skill (large muscles) vs Fine motor skill (small muscles) - Ex: (Gross) squat, cycling, running, (Fine) typing, writing, tying a shoe Specificity of start and end locations - Specified = Discrete motor skill = definite beginning and end Ex: pushing a button, eating a chip - Serial motor skill = has both discrete and continuous components Ex: long jump (running = continuous & jump = discrete) - Arbitrary = Continuous motor skill = no definite beginning or end Ex: riding a bike, walking, or anything with cyclical natured actions Stability of the environment and or object - Stable/no motion = Closed motor skill = movement/action goal is not affected by the environment Ex: sitting in a chair - In motion = Open motor skill = movement/action goal is directly affected by the environment Ex: Sitting in a chair while someone tries to push you over, or dodgeball - The extrinsic movement happening in the environment must be directly affecting the primary goal in order to be classified as open b. 2Dimensional (more specific)/Gentile’s Taxonomy Dimension 1 = environmental context - Regulatory Conditions = characteristics that determine regular movements needed to perform an action Is the object stationary? Or in motion? - Intertrial Variability = change from one trial to the next Is the rate at which each environmental object moves or the rate at which an action, or intention of an action, is performed due to the environment constant? y/n? - Stationary examples Throwing a dart the environment (dart board) is stationary, and the intended action goal ( to hit the bullseye) is unchanging therefore, dimension 1 = stationary, no intertrial variability Writing on paper the environment (paper) is stationary, and the action goal of writing (on different spots of the paper) is in a constant state of change therefore, dimension 1 = stationary, yes intertrial variability - In motion examples The shooting duck carnival game the environment (the ducks) is moving, and the rate at which the ducks are moving is constant therefore, dimension 1 = in motion, no intertrial variability Traffic the environment (cars) is moving, and the action (driving in traffic) is variable therefore, dimension 1 = in motion, yes intertrial variability KIN 312 – Week 1: 8/22/16 Natalie Wong Dimension 2 = Action Function - Body orientation = body stability (action goal doesn’t require moving the body in space) vs body transport (body is transported actively or passively to a new location) Active body transport = walking up staris Passive body transport = riding on an escalator - Object manipulation = using an object to complete an action (***stationary objects used for leverage or support are not considered manipulated, such as a hand rail on a staircase, or a balance beam for a gymnast) Yes? – writing with a pen, in which the pen is being manipulated to carry out the action goal of writing No? – walking on a balance beam VI. Gentile’s Taxonomy Simple Actions ***When the 4 characteristics are combined, we get the 16 subcategories of Gentile’s Taxonomy Complex Actions a. 4 questions to consider when describing any motor skill in 2D: (Environment) Regulatory conditions – in motion or stationary? (Environment) Intertrial variability – yes/change or no/constant? (Action Function) Body transport – maintaining a position (stability) or moving through space? (Action Function) Object Manipulation – is an object being manipulated to carry out the action goal? b. Characteristics of Gentile’s Taxonomy Each category places different demands on the performer Motor skills are ordered on the basis of complexity Complexity increases by the task or action involving: - Open environment - Trial to trial variability - Object to manipulate KIN 312 – Week 1: 8/22/16 Natalie Wong - Body transport Ex: hitting a baseball - start by having the kid practice shifting weight in the legs and the swinging motion of the arms with no bat - (object manipulation) add a bat - (trial to trial variability) add a T with a baseball, in which the T is in a different position each time - (open environment) take away the T and throw the ball at the kid who has the action goal of hitting the ball - (body transport) progression to coordinated movement of different body parts in space to hit the ball more efficiently c. Practical uses of Gentile’s Taxonomy Evaluation of deficiencies in motor performance A system of progressions of activities to overcome deficiencies Chart progress ***Practical uses can be utilized in clinical (treating a patient), recreational (teaching a skill for a sport), or warm up (ready body for skill performance with simpler activities and perfect the skill with more complex activities) settings