What is Physiology/Types of Imaging
What is Physiology/Types of Imaging 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
1. What is Physiology? a. The Greek work for physiology is broken into two words i. Physis-function ii. Logos-study of b. It is the study of all of the functions of the body parts including chemical and physical processes. i. Concerned with the function of the body (how it works and how they carry out each life-sustaining activity) ii. Reveals the body’s dynamic and animated workings iii. Physiology focuses on the events at the cellular/molecular level because the body’s abilities depend on each individual cell and the chemical reactions that occur within them. c. Types of physiology: i. Renal physiology: concerned with kidney function and urine production. ii. Neurophysiology: explains the workings of the nervous system. iii. Cardiovascular physiology: examines the operation of the heart and blood vessels. 2. Medical Imaging a. X-ray- short wave light energy gamma radiation. We can see bones from x-rays. It does not show soft tissue. b. CT scan; computerized tomography. Taking x rays, sending them to a computer, and layering them on top of each other. (x-ray with overlap) c. Xenon CT: enhancing a CT by using radioactive Xenon gas. Patient inhales the gas, goes through the bloodstream, and will accumulate in areas of high blood flow. We can see if there was a stroke and where the damaged brain areas are because they would have a lack of oxygen. d. DSRs: Digital Subtraction Radiography. Takes two images at two different points in time and illustrates the change between the two. e. DSA: Digital Subtraction Angiography. Looking at blood vessels in a bony or dense soft tissue location. One image is taken before the dye is injected and then the second image with the dye is taken. They delete all the pieces of the image that are the same in both pictures so that you get an image of just the blood vessels with the dye in them. Can show if there is an aneurism or blockage. f. PET scan: Positron Emission Tomography. Kind of like a xenon ct. taking radioisotopes and injecting them into a person. Allows us to examine metabolic activity, most absorbed isotopes will glow brighter. (Different from xenon CT is that this is injected and the other is inhaled) A - F use light energy!! G - J do not!!! g. Ultrasound: Sound energy. Puts sound waves in the body and a machine gets an echo that is interpreted into a picture. h. MRI: Magnetic Residence Imaging. Puts a wave of magnetism through the body. Because the ions in the body are charged, they will align momentarily as the wave goes through the body. You will see an absence of bone. Very detailed pictures of soft tissue. (new MRIs will fill blank areas with bone. Uses hydrogen. i. MRS: Magnetic Residence Spectroscopy. Uses other ions like calcium instead of hydrogen. j. M2A: a little pill/capsule that contains a digital camera and it is swallowed. Camera sends a picture every couple of seconds to a receiver. 3D colored picture. The life of the camera is less than 18 hours because that’s how long it takes to digest food completely. 3. KEY WORDS: a. ANATOMY=STRUCTURE and PHYSIOLOGY=FUNCTION b. Structure can dictate function c. Function can regulate structure i. This is how the two integrate together ii. Example is simple red blood cells. They carry oxygen and they are structured. 4. Levels of Organization a. Chemical: this is not the smallest level, but its as low as we As we go want to go. Our base/bottom line. b. Cellular: basic unit of life. down, the c. Tissue: cells will merge together to form tissues. Come level of from the same embryological origin can perform a specific organizati task. on d. Organ: a bunch of tissues that combine together. Different increases. types of tissues working together to regulate a function. e. Organ System: collection of two or more organs that work together to perform a certain task. f. Organismic/Organism: If we put all the organ systems together. 5. Life Processes (things that living organisms have) a. Limiting boundaries: where do we stop and the rest of the world begins? Our skin is our limiting boundary. b. Excitability: the ability to sense change both without and outside of the body. We do this by responding to stimuli. (internal and external stimuli). c. Conductivity: being able to carry the effects of stimulation from one body part to another. d. Metabolism: all the biochemical reactions that are going on in the body i. Catabolism: break down reactions (digest it down) ii. Anabolism: build up reactions (using food to form energy) e. Digestion: includes chemical and mechanical reactions. The breakdown of food. We chew food/ grind it up. This is mechanical. f. Excretion: the elimination of waste as urine, carbon dioxide, poop g. Movement: the result of muscle activity (skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle) h. Growth: increasing in size. It either gets more cells or the cells get bigger. Mostly true that you are born with all the muscle cells that you will ever have, they just grow. You get more fingernail cells when a nail grows back. i. Reproduction: cells divide in order to get more cells. Biological basic goal is to produce more individuals. 6. Survival Needs (in order for things to stay alive, we have certain survival needs. Too little or too much is bad) a. Nutrients: chemical substances we use for energy and to produce new cells. b. Oxygen: We have to have this because it is an electron acceptor that produces energy. c. Water: our body is 60-80% water. We obtain it in the food we eat and what we drink. We are constantly loosing water. d. Normal Body Temperature: our body is designed to function best at 30 degrees Celsius. Above that temp, cells denature. Below that temp and our body will slow down. e. Atmospheric Pressure: we have to have some type of pressure on our bodies in order to survive. 7. Homeostasis: when everything in our body is optimal a. Is derived from two Greek words i. Homoios ii. Stasis- same b. It is the condition of a stable internal body environment i. It never stays the same/constantly fluctuating/ not a constant 1. It is a dynamic equilibrium within our limiting boundary. c. Requirements of homeostasis i. Survival needs are at optimum 1. Optimum internal nutrition, internal gases, internal water, internal temperature, and internal pressure. 2. Homeostasis will occur in a narrow range. If we get really far from that optimal range we either get sick or we die. 8. Stress: causes us to deviate from homeostasis. a. Comes from an “Old French” word i. Estresse-drawn tight b. It is any stimulus causing an imbalance in a person’s internal environment. Anything that disrupts homeostasis i. There can be internal and external stress ii. All stimuli cause some type of response, but not all stimuli disturb homeostasis. iii. All living organisms have a high resistance to stress. We have a lot of regulatory mechanisms to counteract the stress and return us to homeostasis. c. Stress Regulation i. Nervous System: sends electrical messages throughout the body. Has a sensory receptor/detector, has an integrator (brain and spinal cord), and an effector. ii. Endocrine System: Uses chemical signals. (chemical regulators) and those signals are called hormones. 9. Feedback Systems a. Is derived from Anglo Saxon words… i. Fedan ii. Baec b. … and a Greek word i. systema c. It is any circular situation where information about the status of something is continually reported to a central control region. d. There is both negative and positive feedback.