Introduction; The story of Pyschology
Introduction; The story of Pyschology Psyc 2010
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Notetaker on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Jennifer Daniels in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
The Story of Psychology Psychology; Learning/Practicing the approach to human actions and interactions. How do we define psychology? Study of the mind, behaviors and emotions Scientific study of behaviors and mental processes The science of psychology is the use of systematic methods to observe, describe, predict and explain behavior The behavior of psychology is everything we do that can be observed The mental processes of psychology is the thoughts, feelings and motives that each of us experience privately, but cannot be observed directly. Is psychology more than common sense? e.x. People that live together before marriage have longer, happier marriages True or False False, data shows divorce rates are higher for those who live together before marriage *^To follow up with the previous question, psychology isn’t always common sense. When asking a class opinion on many topics the opinions will be split down the middle. This is why adequate research, not just common sense, is required to make a factual conclusion to a statement. Let’s talk about... Roots of Psychology Where did psychology come from? Philosophy, biology and physiology Greek philosopher Socrates, Plato and Aristotle French philosopher Descartes Direct Observation, reasoning, theory of motivation, drives, sensing, remembering, desiring, reacting, thinking, memory and sleep Modern Psychology 1879 University of Leipzig Wilhelm Wundt; First psychology lab <As the first individual to refer to themselves as a psychologist, Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory that was used exclusively for psychology research in 1879 in Leipzig, Germany. Two schools of thought an d s tructuralism and functionalism (Wundt and T ichener); Structuralism Attempt to identify structures of the human mind with introspection (looking inward) Functionalism Concerned with the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the way we adapt to the environment ( looking outward *environment*) Important Females <Women in the 19th/20th century were not allowed to hold any power in the psychological profession. They were allowed to sit in classes, but were not allowed to graduate with a psychology degree. Both of the women listed below were very high, if not the highest, in their class.> ary Calkins; first female president of APA, Wasn’t allowed to graduate Harvard psychology ashburn; first female to receive a phD (second president of APA) Contemporary Approaches <While humans have evolved over time so has our education in psychology. With so many new theories and approaches, there is no right or wrong approach, each one just bring a different understanding to human behavior. So when studying these approaches understand that each one is unique and is a different way to view our behavior in different environments.> Biological Approach Examines behavior and mental processes through a focus on the body, especially the brain and nervous system e.x. Talking in front of others < one of the number one fears *Behavior The things that can be observed and mental processes Neuroscience Approach Studies the structure, function, development, genetics and biochemistry of the nervous system Thoughts and emotions have a physical basis in the brain How is blood chemistry linked with moods and emotions? Behavioral Approach Emphasizes the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants. In simple terms; Have you had this experience before? And if so, how did it go? e.x. Having a bad experience reading in front of others creates a response of fear to present in front of others. How do we learn to fear certain objects? Stop smoking? How does the environment affect our behavior and vice versa? Wellcontrolled, lab experiments initially, now some natural settings. Rewards and Punishments determine our behavior. We can make others do certain things by using this method of reward vs punishment. Not all behaviorists reject cognitions as important. ohn Watson (18781958); The first individual who said we have to be able to measure behaviors. Very systematic method in studying behaviors. .F. Skinner (19041990); “Operant Conditioning” Studied a lot about reinforcement and punishment. Freud (18561939); Unconscious thoughts, childhood experiences, conflicts between biological instincts and societal demands<< Very hard method to prove experimentally Freud main themes in his research was sex and anger; and his studies were done on mostly women, who are living in a period of women's oppression before an age of feminism. Humanistic Approach People choose to live by higher human values emphasizes positive qualities and growth. Having self understanding and awareness. Carl Rogers; He would use Humanistic Approach through unconditional positive regard. Unconditional positive regard; Practicing unconditional positive regard means accepting and respecting others as they are without judgment or evaluation. Using empathy and genuine characteristics in communicating with others. Abraham Maslow; Achieving self actualization using the “hierarchy of needs” Cognitive Approach Emphasizes the mental processes. Responding to the way we see our environment. Cognitions control behaviors How we encode, process, store and retrieve information Evolutionary Approach Nature vs Nurture Nature; Our hereditary Nurture; Our life experiences Charles Darwin; Adaptation, Reproduction, “Survival of the fittest” This method does not account for cultural diversity and experiences we have had. Sociocultural Approach Focuses on how social and cultural environments influence behavior e.x. South vs North e.x. AfricanAmerican, Asian American, European American ***Potential Essay Questions; Choose a behavior and describe that behavior?? Areas of Specialization: The Highlights Clinical and Counseling Psychology Diagnose and treat people with mental disorders. Cognitive Psychology Attention, consciousness, information processing, memory, perceiving and thinking. Developmental Psychology Biological and environmental factors that influences how we become who we are. Our changing abilities throughout our lifetime. Forensic Psychology Dealing with legal issues and people who harm others. Health Psychology Psychological factors, lifestyle, healthcare system, stress, coping e.x. Women with breast cancer who had an optimistic outlook had a higher survival than those who did not I/O Psychology Workplace. Physiological Psychology Physical processes that underlie psychological processes, especially the brain. School/Educational Psychology Give I.Q. tests, counseling, dealing with the psychology of the kids in the school. Sports Psychology Improving sports performance. Personality Psychology S tudying persistent traits.
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