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Biodiversity Chapter 22 notes

by: Madison Czerepak

Biodiversity Chapter 22 notes BSC 2011

Marketplace > University of South Florida > BSC 2011 > Biodiversity Chapter 22 notes
Madison Czerepak
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For anyone who has not bought the book or does not want to buy the book, i will be posting notes for every chapter that you can use to study with.
Bio II- Biological Diversity
Chantale Begin
Class Notes
darwin, evolution




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Czerepak on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2011 at University of South Florida taught by Chantale Begin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views.


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Date Created: 08/23/16
● Evolution­descent with modification/ states that earth’s many species are   descendants of ancestral species that were different from present day species due to a  change in genetic composition ● Two ways to view evolution ­ Pattern: data from scientific disciplines such as biology, geology, physics, and  chemistry ­ Process: mechanisms that produce the change The Darwin Revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species ● Scala Naturae/ Classification of species ­ Scala naturae­ scale of nature is a theory (created by aristotle) that each  form of life is perfect and unchanging it is consistent with the old testament  account of creation ­ Organisms match their environment because the creator made it that way ● Carolous Linnaeus­developed a binomial format for naming a species ­ Genus + Species ­ Example: Homo sapiens = humans ­ Based on the pattern of creation Ideas Change Over Time ● Paleontology­ the study of fossils and the remains organisms from the  past ­ Fossils usually appear in sedimentary rock ­ Strata­different layers of the rock  ● Georges Cuvier noticed that from one layer to the next, some species  appeared while others disappeared ( extinction must have occurred) ­ He theorized that each boundary between strata represented a  catastrophic event ● James Hutton and Charles Lyell believed that Earth’s geologic processes  are operating today as in the past and at the same rate ­ Processes are slow and continuous rather than sudden events ­ Darwin took this and theorized that processes could produce substantial  biological change over time Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution ● Lamarck believed that evolutionary change explained patterns in fossils  and their match to their environments ­ He is known not for the above but for his incorrect hypothesis that stated  that parts of the body that are used become stronger and larger while parts that  are not used deteriorate and do not show up in the next generation ● Darwin Rejected this idea but he did think that the evolutionary process of  variation made things inherit acquired characteristics Descent with modification by natural selection explains adaptations of organisms, unity, and the diversity of life Darwin’s research and the voyage of the beagle ● Darwin observed plants and animals around the south american coast ­ He noticed that species in the tropic areas resembled species in  temperate regions ­ He found fossils of ocean organisms in the Andes, which led him to  believe that the earth changes and is more than a few thousand years old  ( people used to believe that the Earth was 6,000 years old) ­ The mocking birds of the galapagos were very similar but had their own  unique characteristics that seemed to match their environments  Darwin focus on adaptation ● Adaptations are inherited characteristics that enhance survival ­ Darwin predicted that species on galapagos evolved from those on the  south american mainland ­ He studied finches beaks and discovered natural selection­process in  which individuals that have certain traits survive more and reproduce more,  therefore they pass on their traits to offspring ● 1845 he published the origin of species which made 3 observations about  evolution, which were descent with modification, unity, and diversity ­ Descendants of ancestral organisms lived in various habitats, so they  gradually got modifications to fit the environment  ­ Over time descent with modification led to the diversity we see today Artificial, Natural Selection, and Adaptation ● Artificial selection­ selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits ­ Pets, livestock, crops look little like their wild ancestors because of this ­ Darwin believed that this could occur in nature through natural selection ● Natural Selection­process in which individuals that have certain traits  survive and reproduce more than those who don't  ­ Over time Natural selection increases match between organisms and their environments ­ Environmental change, migration, and natural selection result in  adaptations, sometimes even a new species Evolution is supported by a lot of scientific evidence ● Direct observations, homology, fossil record, and biogeography all support evolution ● Direct observations ­ Beak lengths of birds; environments where seed are closer to the surface  result in finches having shorter beaks, the farther from the surface the seeds are, the longer the beak tends to be ­ Viruses mutate and change every year ­ Bacteria become antibiotic resistant ● Homology­ similarities resulting from common ancestry ● anatomical/molecular homologies ­ Some creatures of different species have similar structures  ­ Example: forelimbs of all mammals show the same arrangement of bones  but are all used for different purposes ­ Embryology­most embryos look the same until development ­ Similar genetic codes ● Fossil records­ fossils show that species change over time in various  groups of organisms ­ Fossils reveal the origin of species and reflect changes over time ● Biogeography­ the scientific study of geographic distributions of species  ­ Continental drift is used to predict where different fossils of different  groups of organisms can be found ­ Islands sometimes have plants, animals, etc, that are endemic, yet  resemble those on their mainlands, which suggests that the two areas where  once connected


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