Molecular Biology Quick Facts - Day 1
Molecular Biology Quick Facts - Day 1 BIOL 312
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 312 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Renaud Geslain in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Molecular Biology in Biology at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
Molecular Biology Quick Facts – Day 1 v Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA in 1953. v There are 46 chromosomes in the human genome; there are two copies of each chromosome. v There are 4 nucleotides in the human genome – 6 billion nucleotides in total. v The first human genome was sequenced in 2003 and 1,000 human genomes were sequenced by 2013. o There will be an estimate of 1 million human genomes sequenced by 2020, but there are already 1 million sequenced that include exones. v There are around 20,000 protein-encoding genes in the human genome. v 99.9% of our genome is similar to everyone we know. v There are 250 differentiated cell types in the human body. v The first mammal to be born that was cloned from an adult cell took place in 1996 – Dolly. v In vitro human-embryo research is30imited to the first 2 weeks. v There are an estimated 5 x 10 bacteria on earth – even more viruses. o 30 – 70 trillion bacteria cells are in our body, included are around 1,000 species of bacteria. v Geogemma barrossi grows in conditions between 90 and 120 degrees Celsius – that’s 194 to 248 degrees Fahrenheit. v The first good microscope was designed in 1977. v There are three main branches on the tree of life, also called domains. v The Spanish flue killed anywhere between 20 to 50 million people after World War I – Ebola has killed around 11,000 people. o There have been around 20 outbreaks of Ebola in recent history, but a vaccine is hard to come by, because it takes years to design and distribute a successful vaccine and by then, the virus will have already been contained and killed whoever was infected. v The last person to have contracted Smallpox was in 1977 – humans can only contract the illness from other humans, so since there are no humans left that have Smallpox, it is practically impossible to catch it currently. v The most expensive part of developing a new drug is the testing phases – pharmaceutical companies will invest around 500 million to 2 billion dollars on developing new drugs. o Currently, it takes around 8 to 10 years to develop, test and market a new drug, but that process needs to be faster. o There are 4 phases in clinical trials, starting with a small pool of volunteers that take the drugs to test for toxicity and then larger numbers of patients that take the drugs with conditions that require them. v Recombinant human insulin was commercialized for the first time in 1982. v The average cost of a new cancer drug, per year, is $100,000, while the cost per year for an HIV treatment is $10,000.