Lessons from Ecology Handout 3
Lessons from Ecology Handout 3 FANR 1100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Mackenzie on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FANR 1100 at University of Georgia taught by Wilde in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
Principles of Ecology: Part 3 FANR/MARS 1100 Matter and Energy Flow in Ecosystems There is a limit to the number of levels in an energy pyramid or ecosystem. Why only 10% transfer of energy and matter? 1. Not all organisms in one trophic consumed by the next Organisms may die of “Natural causes” and feed into the detritus food web 2. Not all parts of an organism are digestible (cellulose, bone, hair, etc.) 3. Not all material is accessible 4. Respiration – Loss of energy through heat and loss of carbon through carbon dioxide (this is the primary reason) Nutrient Cycles Nutrients recirculate in the ecosystem Biogeochemical cycle = the circular flow of an element from nonliving into the bodies of living organisms and then back into the nonliving environment Nutrient cycles are closed systems. Nitrogen (N) Cycle N is essential component of many biological molecules Nitrogen Fixation – Three Types 1. Atmosphere fixation: lightning/sunlight convert N 2o nitrate NO 3n atmosphere 2. Biological fixation: bacteria in soil/water convert N2 to ammonia NH 3 3. industrial fixation: combine N with hydrogen (H) to form ammonia (NH ), converted 2 3 to salts to use as fertilizer – increase in this type of fixation Anthropogenic Effects o Pesticides: can be detrimental to Nfixing bacteria o Fertilizers: too much N disrupts cycle o Fossil fuels: burning produces nitrogen dioxide (NO ) 2 Carbon (C) Cycle C is a key element of organisms C reservoirs include: atmosphere, organisms, ocean, sediment, and calcium carbonate Atmospheric and organismic reservoirs are not large, but flow rate is high Over last 50100 years, increasing C levels in atmosphere through combustion Phosphorus (P) Cycle Anthropogenic activity has increased the amount of P in aquatic systems. Creates algal blooms that die, sink to the bottom, decay, bacteria use up O2, creating anoxic zones. Mining phosphorus applying it to the landscape as inorganic fertilizer has changed the P cycle in recent decades, harming aquatic life and degrading aquatic systems.
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