Week 3 Anatomy Notes
Week 3 Anatomy Notes CBIO 2200
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Dickinson on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CBIO 2200 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology I in Cellular biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
Notes for CBIO 2200 CRN17428 CH3 Chart/table of organelles and their functions. We should be prepared to identify an organelle and describe its function. 1. Generalized Cell Structure The nucleus tells you that you’re looking at a cell and clues you in to the type of cell and they type of tissue. a) 3 general areas to be studied more in detail • Nucleus • Plasma Membrane • Cytoplasm and associated organelles 2. Plasma Membrane a) Lipids (mostly phospholipids) (blue and pink) (polar heads are blue and fatty acid tails are pink) (bilayer) • The polar heads come into contact with the watery extracellular environment and the watery cytosol • The non-polar fatty-acid tails are in contact with each other. Hydrophobic environment. This fatty layer makes the plasma membrane such a good barrier. b) Proteins • The proteins sit in and span the plasma membrane. One side on inside, and one side on outside. • The purple strings are structural proteins that also span the membrane and interact with other proteins c) Other • The purple strings are carbohydrate molecules, either associated with the lipids or the proteins • The tiny orange strings near the hydrophobic tails are cholesterol and contribute to the fluidity “A sea of phospholipids” Function of lipids • Form barrier, form the structure or skeleton (framework) of the membrane. The amphipathic property is very important Functions of membrane proteins • Transport substances across the lipid bilayer • Enzymes (proteins are enzymes) • Receptors for some stimulus • Join membranes to adjacent cells • Structure • Cell identity markers (needs to identify, or immune system will attack) If plasma membranes are barriers, how do things get in/out of the cell? • Several ways, depending on the type of substance crossing • Active (requiring energy) • Passive (no energy required) 3. Transport of substances across membranes a) Passive processes (Do NOT require energy input by the cell) Substances move across a membrane Substances move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration (down the concentration gradient) Kinetic energy is the energy of movement Diffusion • The movement of molecules or ions form a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration • Depends on the kinetic energy of the molecule or ion (i.e. heating up the system so they diffuse faster) • Substances diffuse down their concentration gradients i) Simple diffusion- a polar molecule isn’t likely to diffuse through. Have to be really really small and non-polar (hydrophobic) (CO2 and O2) Water has to use a channel because it has to be regulated. ii) Facilitated diffusion- anything that has to use a channel to get across, but no ATP is facilitated diffusion. “The spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a membrane via specific transmembrane integral proteins.” When the molecule interacts with the channel, the channel changes shape and is let through) (An ion channel is a different entity, and we will talk about it later) iii) Osmosis (special case of diffusion) “Water moves form an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration” “Moving from where there’s more water to where there’s less water” The membrane is permeable to water but not to the solute. The water will move until the hydrostatic pressure (pressure exerted by a fluid against a container, vessel) opposes it. • Movement of H2O across a membrane • Describing the differences in solution concentrations across a permeable membrane a) Isotonic- surrounding medium has the SAME concentration of solute as cell interior b) Hypertonic- Surrounding medium has MORE solute than cell interior c) Hypotonic- Surrounding medium has LESS solute than the cell interior If we take a cell and put it in a hypotonic solution, the cell will swell and burst If we put a cell into a hypertonic solution, the cell will shrink (water moving from cell to environment iv) Filtration “The flow of liquid through a filter (or membrane that acts like a filter) due to hydrostatic pressure Pushing of fluid through a membrane • Due to pressure of the fluid b) Active processes • Require some sort of energy • Energy provided by ATP OR the energy is provided indirectly by another process i) Primary active transport • Hydrolysis of ATP provides energy to “drive” the mechanism • Usually catalyzed by membrane protein “pumps” • Can result in the formation of a concentration gradient across a membrane • Na+/K+ ATPase or Na+/K+ pump is an example • Not limited to moving substances down a concentration gradient (very often moving against- from where there’s less to where there’s more) Didn’t get to this information in class. Not on test. ii) Secondary active transport • Antiporters are one example • Symporters are another example iii) Vesicular transport • Exocytosis • Endocytosis • Transcytosis 4. What is an electrochemical gradient (p. 528-529) a) Concentration b) Charge 5. Cytoplasm and organelles- Inside of the plasma membrane a) Cytoskeleton b) Centrosome c) Ribosomes d) Endoplasmic Reticulum e) Golgi apparatus f) Lysosomes g) Mitochondria h) Nucleus 6. Protein synthesis a) Transcription • Messenger RNA • Ribosomal RNA • Transfer RNA b) Translation- mRNA code becomes a protein 7. Mitosis and cell division a) Cell cycle i) Interphase ii) G1 iii) G2 iv) S b) Mitotic phases i) Prophase ii) Metaphase iii) Anaphase iv) Telophase
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