Lessons from Ecology Handout 4
Lessons from Ecology Handout 4 FANR 1100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Mackenzie on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FANR 1100 at University of Georgia taught by Wilde in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
Principles of Ecology: Part 4 FANR/MARS 1100 Law of Tolerance Survival depends on iteraction of many factors, which can vary greatly. For each factor a given species has a range of tolerance, or a range of conditions it can tolerate If environmental conditions exceed upper or lower limit of tolerance, death can result. Organism, Habitat, or Niche Habitat refers to where an organism lives. Niche refers to a job or activity within the habitat. Carrying Capacity Definition of Carrying Capacity: number of individuals an ecosystem can support Carrying capacity can be determined by: food, water, nesting sites, cover, climate, space, and much more Carrying capacity is dynamic – changes seasonally and yearly Tradeoff between population growth and density dependence o Low herd density = high herd health and habitat quality o High herd density = low herd health and habitat quality Principles of Ecology: Population Size Population growth: increase when conditions are favorable Biotic potential: maximum reproductive rate Environmental resistance: biotic and abiotic factors that reduce growth Examples of reduction factors: predators, disease, parasites, competitors, lack of food, lack of sustainable habitat, unfavorable weather, lack of water, alterations in chemical environment Examples of growth factors: high reproductive rates, ability to adapt to environmental change, ability to migrate to new habitat, ability to compete, ability to hide, ability to defend, ability to find food, adequate food supply, favorable light, favorable temperatures, favorable chemical environment Principles of Ecology: Biological Succession Definition of Biological Succession: orderly and often predictable replacement of one community by another in the absence of a disturbance Primary succession: succession that occurs in areas not previously occupied by organisms Secondary succession: succession that occurs in areas previously occupied by organisms The Biomes Definition of biome: a large terrestrial community characterized by its climate and unique assemblage of plants and animals Tundra: extends from the timberline to perpetual ice in the north Northern coniferous forest (taiga): extensive forest just south of tundra, around most of the world Deciduous forest: deciduous forest in NA, China, Japan, and Australia Tropical rain forest: Equatorial regions, lots of rain Tropical savannah: warmclimate grassland with scattered trees Grassland: large area of land dominated by grasses (prairies of NA, SA, Eurasia and Africa. US ones cultivated by humans out of prairies) Desert: found throughout the world, receive less than 25 cm of rain (organisms have to be specialized to handle low water) o Tend to be leeward side of prominent mountains Altitudinal biomes: with altitude, you see changes in biomes, at much smaller scale
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