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Chemistry week 1 (IU, C117)

by: Athena Nagel

Chemistry week 1 (IU, C117) Chemistry C117

Marketplace > Indiana University > Chemistry > Chemistry C117 > Chemistry week 1 IU C117
Athena Nagel
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Lecture covered the beginning of thermodynamics: energy and enthalpy.
Principles of Chemistry and Biochem I
Jill Robinson
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Athena Nagel on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry C117 at Indiana University taught by Jill Robinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry and Biochem I in Chemistry at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 08/23/16
Athena Nagel Thermodynamics (Week 1­2 Notes) Energy:   How are some ways energy is transferred?  o Heat o Electricity o Work o Light   1  Law of Thermodynamics: The total internal energy (E) is constant in an isolated  system. Energy can be transferred from one form to another, but cannot be created or  destroyed.   ΔE=E (final) – E (initial)  o Energy that flows from the system to the surrounding is negative. (System loses  energy) o Energy that flows from the surrounding to the system is positive. (System gains  energy)   Internal energy depends on: o Chemical energy o Temperature o Pressure o Physical state o Etc…   State function: A function or property whose value depends on the present state of the  system and not how the property arrived at that state.   Work = Force x Distance (w = f x d)  Pressure = Force/Area (P = F/A)    Expansion work: Resulted from a volume change in a system.   Example: A balloon filled with hydrogen and oxygen molecules:  o Does the system [H2(g) + O2(g)] have potential energy? Yes. If the molecules  inside can turn into products and release energy, there is potential energy.  o Does the system ^ have kinetic energy? Yes, the molecules are moving inside the  balloon.     Internal energy: The sum of KE (kinetic energy) and PE (potential energy) of all  nanoscale particles in that system.   KE = 1/2 mv^2  (1kgm^2)/(sec^2)  1 calorie = 4.184 J   In most chemical reactions, energy is transferred as heat and work.   ΔE = q + w (q=heat, w=work)   F = P x A  w = ­P x ΔV o Doing work means that w is negative (­)  o Absorbing work means w is positive (+)   Calculate the transfer of energy as work (kj) during the synthesis of ammonia:   N 2 g +3 H 2 (g →2 NH 3 g ) During the reaction, the volume contracts from 8.6L to 4.3L at a constant external  pressure of 44 atm.   W = ­PΔV = ­(44atm)(4.3L­8.6L) = 189.2 Latm  189.2 Latm x 101J/1Latm x 1kJ/1000J = 19.1 kJ   *Remember to convert to Joules!  At a constant volume, all transferred energy is in the form of heat.  Enthalpy Change:  At a constant P energy transfer as heat or work.  Enthalpy: the total heat content of a system.  o q = ΔE + PΔV  *When a solid is turned into a gas, energy is absorbed.   When a gas is turned into a solid, energy is released.   Endothermic reaction: The system gains heat. (ΔH is + )   Exothermic reaction: The system loses heat. (ΔH is ­ )    Heat capacity (C): the number of heat units needed to raise the temperature of a body by one degree  Specific heat (C): the heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given  substance by a given amount (usually one degree).  Heat capacity: the number of heat units needed to raise the temperature of a body by one degree.


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