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Biology 141 Week 1 Notes

by: Thacia Stirling

Biology 141 Week 1 Notes BIOL 141

Marketplace > Walla Walla University > Biology > BIOL 141 > Biology 141 Week 1 Notes
Thacia Stirling

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Biology Introduction Process of Science Atoms, Molecules and Bonds
Biology I
Dr. Nestler
Class Notes
Biology, atoms and elements, Bio




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thacia Stirling on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 141 at Walla Walla University taught by Dr. Nestler in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Biology I in Biology at Walla Walla University.


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Date Created: 08/23/16
Introduction What is biology? Combination of bios+logos (study of life). Biology is a quest and an inquiry  about the nature of life.  Evolution – process of change that has transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to  the diversity of organisms living today.  Subdivisions of Biology  Historically o Botany o Zoology o Microbiology  Modern o Ecology – interactions with environment o Immunology – the immune system o Histology – tissues o Entomology – insects o Acarology – ticks o Ornithology – birds o Astrobiology – living things in outer space o Hematology – blood o Hepatology – reptiles, amphibians Terminology – Based in Latin and Greek roots.  Modern biology is built upon physics, chemistry and mathematics. We study biology because we are curious about living organisms, we want to improve conditions for humans and we want to  make intelligent and ethical decisions.  What is “life”?   Complex organization (DNA/RNA based)  Growth and development  Use energy (take in, transform, and release)  Produce offspring similar to parent  Respond to external and internal stimuli  Adapt to the environment  Intraspecific variation   Exhibit homeostasis (relatively constant internal environment) We organize living things from small to big with family trees and asking who is related to whom. We know that there is 2.3m species identified, named and described, but there can be anywhere  up from 10­20 million in total.  Emergent properties – due to the arrangement and interactions of parts are complexity  increases.  Classification of Hierarchy  Domain (most inclusive)  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species Bacteria  Unicellular organisms with no nucleus.   Pro= before. Karyon=nucleus  E.coli, Salmonella, staphylococcus, streptococcus, helicobacter Archaea  Unicellular organisms. Prokaryote   Extremophile o Thermophiles – heat o Halophile – salt o Acidophile – acid (pH of 1 or 2) o Methanogens – make methane gas Eukarya  Unicellular and multicellular organisms.   Eu=true. Karyon=nuclues  Kingdom Animalia, plante and fungi all are multicelled Process of Science  Science – Latin "to know". A way of knowing about the world around us.  o Science involves curiosity and asking questions. Wanting to know more. o Science involves attempting to answer these questions. Creativity, imagination,  patience, perseverance.  o Science involves natural phenomena that can be studied o Science involves a lot of skepticism.  Inductive vs Deductive Reasoning  Inductive – deriving generalizations from many specific observations.   Deductive – use generalization to make predictions.  o If...then... The scientific model will involve:  Standard way of using deductive reasoning.  Sea cucumbers crawl across coral. Coral is affected by disease.  Do sea cucumbers benefit cucumbers by removing diseases/vectors?  Hypothesis: If they do benefit coral, then areas with coral will have less diseases than  where there is just coral and no sea cucumbers. a. Make observations and gather information b. Make and educational and scientific guess (Hypothesis) c. Design an experiment d. Conduct experiment e. Analyze result. Math and statistics.  f. Determine if results support or refute hypothesis g. Repeat multiple times!  h. Theory – concept that is will supported by a scientific evidence and widely  accepted by the scientific community i. Proof – science does not "prove" anything. Science provides evidence to support  or refute a particular hypothesis or theory   Limitations to Scientific Method Ethical issues Limited to scientifically detectable events Susceptible to deliberate fraud Scientists are human and are biased, opinionated,, selfish and stubborn The entire population is rarely studied. Experiments may not represent actual populations Resources are limited (time, money, subjects) Atoms, Molecules, and Bonds Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass Element – simplest form of matter. Substances cannot be broken down by chemical reactions. 92 are naturally occurring.  Atom – smallest component of an element Molecule – formed by connecting two or more atoms  Compound – molecules formed by connecting 2 or more atoms of different elements Atomic History Plum Pudding Model – hypothesized by Thompson in 1904. Elements with negative  charges are not stationary and are surrounded by a goey pudding of positive charge.  Planetary Model – hypothesized by Rutherford in 1911. He said that there was a nucleus  with positive protons and neutral neutrons. They orbit a nucleus at all the same distance  away.  Bohr – proposed by Bohr (1913). Protons and neutrons in a nucleus. Electrons are not all  the same distance. They travel in special orbits/rings.  Schrodinger Quantum Mechanics Model – 1926. Nucleus with protons and neutrons.  Electrons are moving all over the place. They will be some where within the cloud/shell  around the nucleus.  Atomic Structure Nucleus – contains the protons and the neutrons.  Atomic number – number of protons Atomic Mass – number of protons and neutrons added together.  Isotope ­ a variation in the number of neutrons in the element.  Dalton – each proton and neutron are weighed at 1 Dalton.  Electron Shells – atoms are typically neutral in charge; they have the same numbers of  electrons as protons. Electors are the component involved in forming chemical bonds.  Electrons orbit the nucleus in 3D space in regions called shells. In biology, we focus on  the first 3 shells. First shell is the lowest energy level. Shells can be subdivided into  "orbitals". First has max of two electrons. Electron Location Principles Electrons occupy ­ the lowest energy shell available lower energy shels are filled completely before higher energy shells are used.  Atoms with full shells are more stable, making them less chemically reactive.  Chemical Bonds – the forces that hold atoms to each other. Atoms with unfilled shells join  together to form more stable structures. “molecules” Ionic Bonds – one atom donates an electron to another atom.  Cation – positive charge Anion – negative charge Covalent Bond ­ one or more electrons are shared between atoms.  Equal Sharing of Electrons – nonpolar covalent bonds.  Unequal sharing of electrons – some atoms are very electronegative.  (F,O,N,S) and they make polar covalent bonds. Spend more time around  one atom than the other.  Hydrogen Bond – formed between an electron positive H atom on one molecule and an  electronegative atom on another molecule.  Van der Waals Forces – very weak bonds between any adjacent atoms. Example: gecko  foot Bond Strength Ionic – strong Covalent – strong Hydrogen – weak Van der Waals ­very weak Molecular Polarity  Polar Molecules – will dissolve in water and are hydrophilic. Examples are arginine and  phenylalanine Nonpolar molecules – no or few electronegative atoms. Water will not like this. They  will not bind. It is hydrophobic. Examples are beta­carotene and cholesterol.  Special properties of Water Biological solvent – polar (hydrophilic) molecules dissolve in water because they form  H­bonds with water.  Heat – H2O has a high specific heat capacity. A lot of heat is needed to change the temp  of water. Gains and loses heat very slowly. It also has a high heat of vaporization. A lot  of heat is needed to change liquid to gas. Evaporation (Sweating) removes a lot of heat.  Cohesion and Adhesion – cohesion is the ability of water to H­bond to itself. Water  skippers. Adhesion – water can h­bond to other things. Trees and their roots is an  example of that.  Density – highest density at 4C. it makes it so that ice can float.  Acids, bases and PH +  ­ Water is composed of H2O ­> H + OH pH is the negative log of the concentration of H+.  Acid – the number of hydrogen ions is higher than the number of hydroxyl.  Base – the number of hydroxyl is higher than the number of hydrogen ions.  This is important because chemical bonds, molecular shapes/structures and biochemical  reactions can be very PH dependent.  Buffers – substances that help keep pH relatively constant. They “buffer” any changes by monitoring the H+ levels and adding or taking it away. 


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