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History 1112 Ch. 15 Notes

by: Raven Hamilton

History 1112 Ch. 15 Notes History 1112

Marketplace > Clayton State University > History > History 1112 > History 1112 Ch 15 Notes
Raven Hamilton
Clayton State
GPA 3.73
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Notes from week one covering the extent of chapter 15 -From the Eighth Edition of Duiker World History, Volume II
Survey of Modern World History
Shane Bell
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.

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Date Created: 08/23/16
History 1112 Notes­ Chapter 15 Notes on reading (pgs. 419­429):  Protestant Reformation­ religious reform movement divided Western Christian church  into Catholic and Protestant in 16  century; led by Martin Luther. th  The last half of the 15  century saw “Renaissance states” or “new monarchies” in France, England, and Spain. There was a lot more emphasis on royal authority.  Italians (Venetians) expanded their wealthy empire which was rivaled only by the  Hanseatic League.  Hanseatic League­ commercial military alliance of coastal town in northern Germany.  The middle age society consisted of 3 estates: clergy, nobility, and peasants in that order.  Johannes Gutenburg­ 1455/56 created the first true book produced form movable type  (bible).  Christian humanism/ Northern Renaissance humanism­ believed in the ability of  human beings to change through education and religion.  Desiderius Erasmus (1466­1536)­ “the philosophy of Christ”.  Jean­Baptiste Colbert (1619­1683)­ controller of finances under the reign of Louis XIV  in France. Employed the tactics of mercantilism to increase the economy of France.  Frederick William the Great Elector (1640­1688)­ founded Brandenburg­Prussia (now  just Prussia) on the land he inherited. Known for his well organized army.  Ivan the Terrible (IV 1533­1584)­ ruler of Muscovy (later Russia) in the 16  century,  took the title ‘tsar’ which is the Russian word for Caesar. He expanded territories of  Russia and was called Ivan the terrible because of his ruthless actions as a ruler.   English Civil War (1642­1648)­ Caused by issues between Parliament and monarchs.  After Queen Elizabeth’s death the Tudor dynasty was no more and the Stuart dynasty  took its place. This new line of royals attempted to impose new rules that did not sit well  with Puritans (Protestants in the Anglican church) who viewed them as too similar to  Catholic practices. The war ended with the execution of Charles I and a victory for  Parliament who abolished the monarchy.  New Model Army­ developed by Oliver Cromwell, this army was composed mainly of  Puritan extremists.  Baroque­ began in Italy and spread henceforth, artists of the period sought to merge  Renaissance styles with the spiritual/ religious sentiment of the 16  century. In­ class notes:  There are seven steps to history. These include the events of the past, events observed,  events remembered, events recorded, events with surviving records, those that are  available, useable, and believable, which lead to a historical account.  Niccolo Machiavelli­ categorized as the best expression of the 16  century’s  preoccupation with political power. He emphasized that “the ends justify the means”.  Machiavelli authored a book titled ‘Prince’ in which he outlined the steps to gaining  power.  The term “Machiavelli” has come to mean ruthless, mean and cruel.  With the advent of movable type printing and Johannes Gutenberg’s bible, more people  began to read, research and learning increased, and standard textbooks were developed.  Before the new printing technology, the process of making books involved carving the  letters into wood and stamping it onto paper. Because this process was so grueling, books were reserved for the nobility who could afford them. With movable type, the cost of  books decreased while the literacy rates in Europe increased.  Prelude to the Reformation­ The Catholic church was corrupt with such things as the  sale of indulgences. Indulgences are items one could purchase to gain someone else’s, or  their own, salvation.  Martin Luther­ A German monk who was dissatisfied with the Catholic church. He  wanted the German princes to establish a reformed German church, and believed that  reading the bible was important and salvation could be achieved through faith alone.  Ninety­Five Thesis­ Martin Luther posted this on the doors of the church in Vittenburg,  Germany on October 31  1517. This was basically a list of grievances or charges being  placed upon the officials in the Catholic church. For this Martin Luther was  excommunicated in January of 1521.  Excommunication­ you are a non­entity in the religion and are barred from salvation.  Peace of Augsburg, 1555­ Lutheranism was established as an alternative to Roman  Catholicism in the German states.  Germany­ During this period of the Protestant Reformation, Germany was not yet an  established country. It was a group of German states that fell under the rule of the Holy  Roman Empire.  The difference between Catholicism and Protestantism is that Catholics believe in  salvation through faith and good works, whereas Protestants believe in salvation through  faith alone.  The princes of the German states back Martin Luther’s reformation because they have a  financial stake in it. The money from the Catholic church is returned to the Roman  empire. With churches ruled by the states, the princes could keep the extra finances  within the state.  With the reformation and creation of Protestantism came bloody religious wars that lasted for several decades and ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg.  John Calvin­ native of France who converted to Protestantism and was forced to flee to  Switzerland.  He authored a book titled ‘The Institutes of the Christian Religion’ which  was a synthesis of the Protestant thought and emphasized the doctrine of pre­destination.  King Henry VIII­ brought about the English Reformation because of his desire to  divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the wife of Henry’s brother  Arthur who died of sickness. Henry married Catherine soon after Arthur’s death in order  to keep the royal family on the throne, however Catherine’s inability to bear a legitimate  male heir left Henry desperate for divorce. The pope refused the divorce because it was  against church beliefs. Henry found his way around this with the protestant reformation  (creation of Anglican church) and the Act of Supremacy, and married his mistress Anne  Boleyn. She was be­headed and he married a few more times before his death from  syphilis.   Act of Supremacy, 1534­ proclaimed the king of England as the head of the church.  Anabaptists­ a radical group of religious reformers who believed in adult baptism and  complete separation of church and state. The Amish are decedents of groups such as this.  Episcopalian church­ the American version of the English Anglican church.   Huguenots­ French protestants that composed 40­50% of the French nobility  French Wars of Religion (1562­1598)­ religious wars between Catholics and Protestants in France that ended with the Edict of Nantes.  Edict of Nantes­ issued by King Henry IV in 1598, this document legitimized Calvinist  worship and permitted Calvinists, who were the majority of French Protestants, to engage in politics in France.   King Phillip II­ a devout Catholic king of Spain who sparked a civil war in the  Netherlands.  Queen Elizabeth I­ daughter of Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII, she is considered to  be one of the greatest monarchs in English history. During her reign the Spanish armada  attempted to invade England in 1508, however the fleet was destroyed by a storm before  reaching the shore. The people of England took this to be divine intervention which  strengthen support of Queen Elizabeth. She was also referred to as the “virgin queen”  because she never married.  Social Crisis of the 1600’s­ The Mediterranean area entered into a steep economic  decline as silver imports from Spanish colonies decline  Witchcraft­ people in this period were fearful and unsettled which led to frenzy of  witchcraft allegations and witchcraft trials. Most of those being accused of witchcraft  were females over the age of 50 who were milkmaids or midwives.  Mercantilism­ new economic trend that appeared during this time. Based on the ideas  that the government should improve transportation facilities and grant trade monopolies  to businesses. Also included tariffs (taxes) on foreign goods, and a the nation’s worth  based on the amount of bullion (gold or silver).  Thirty Years’ War (1618­1648)­ This war began as a struggle between Catholics and  romans and ended as a conflict between nations. It concluded with the signing of the  Peace of Westphalia and France emerged as a dominant nation. The Holy Roman Empire  ended as well.  King Gustavus Aldophus­ Swedish king who developed the first army of conscripts  which employed tactics that were highly flexible.   Conscript­ year round members of the military, ready for deployment at any time.  Different from militias and minute men in that members are full time soldiers.  Louis XIV (1643­1715)­ also referred to as “The Sun King”, he practiced absolutism as a monarch (divine­right). During his reign wars were fought from 1667 to 1713. After his  death, France was impoverished and acquired many enemies who were scorned by his  totalitarian attitude.


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