History 1112 Ch. 15 Notes
History 1112 Ch. 15 Notes History 1112
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1112 at Clayton State University taught by Shane Bell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Survey of Modern World History in History at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
History 1112 Notes Chapter 15 Notes on reading (pgs. 419429): Protestant Reformation religious reform movement divided Western Christian church into Catholic and Protestant in 16 century; led by Martin Luther. th The last half of the 15 century saw “Renaissance states” or “new monarchies” in France, England, and Spain. There was a lot more emphasis on royal authority. Italians (Venetians) expanded their wealthy empire which was rivaled only by the Hanseatic League. Hanseatic League commercial military alliance of coastal town in northern Germany. The middle age society consisted of 3 estates: clergy, nobility, and peasants in that order. Johannes Gutenburg 1455/56 created the first true book produced form movable type (bible). Christian humanism/ Northern Renaissance humanism believed in the ability of human beings to change through education and religion. Desiderius Erasmus (14661536) “the philosophy of Christ”. JeanBaptiste Colbert (16191683) controller of finances under the reign of Louis XIV in France. Employed the tactics of mercantilism to increase the economy of France. Frederick William the Great Elector (16401688) founded BrandenburgPrussia (now just Prussia) on the land he inherited. Known for his well organized army. Ivan the Terrible (IV 15331584) ruler of Muscovy (later Russia) in the 16 century, took the title ‘tsar’ which is the Russian word for Caesar. He expanded territories of Russia and was called Ivan the terrible because of his ruthless actions as a ruler. English Civil War (16421648) Caused by issues between Parliament and monarchs. After Queen Elizabeth’s death the Tudor dynasty was no more and the Stuart dynasty took its place. This new line of royals attempted to impose new rules that did not sit well with Puritans (Protestants in the Anglican church) who viewed them as too similar to Catholic practices. The war ended with the execution of Charles I and a victory for Parliament who abolished the monarchy. New Model Army developed by Oliver Cromwell, this army was composed mainly of Puritan extremists. Baroque began in Italy and spread henceforth, artists of the period sought to merge Renaissance styles with the spiritual/ religious sentiment of the 16 century. In class notes: There are seven steps to history. These include the events of the past, events observed, events remembered, events recorded, events with surviving records, those that are available, useable, and believable, which lead to a historical account. Niccolo Machiavelli categorized as the best expression of the 16 century’s preoccupation with political power. He emphasized that “the ends justify the means”. Machiavelli authored a book titled ‘Prince’ in which he outlined the steps to gaining power. The term “Machiavelli” has come to mean ruthless, mean and cruel. With the advent of movable type printing and Johannes Gutenberg’s bible, more people began to read, research and learning increased, and standard textbooks were developed. Before the new printing technology, the process of making books involved carving the letters into wood and stamping it onto paper. Because this process was so grueling, books were reserved for the nobility who could afford them. With movable type, the cost of books decreased while the literacy rates in Europe increased. Prelude to the Reformation The Catholic church was corrupt with such things as the sale of indulgences. Indulgences are items one could purchase to gain someone else’s, or their own, salvation. Martin Luther A German monk who was dissatisfied with the Catholic church. He wanted the German princes to establish a reformed German church, and believed that reading the bible was important and salvation could be achieved through faith alone. NinetyFive Thesis Martin Luther posted this on the doors of the church in Vittenburg, Germany on October 31 1517. This was basically a list of grievances or charges being placed upon the officials in the Catholic church. For this Martin Luther was excommunicated in January of 1521. Excommunication you are a nonentity in the religion and are barred from salvation. Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Lutheranism was established as an alternative to Roman Catholicism in the German states. Germany During this period of the Protestant Reformation, Germany was not yet an established country. It was a group of German states that fell under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire. The difference between Catholicism and Protestantism is that Catholics believe in salvation through faith and good works, whereas Protestants believe in salvation through faith alone. The princes of the German states back Martin Luther’s reformation because they have a financial stake in it. The money from the Catholic church is returned to the Roman empire. With churches ruled by the states, the princes could keep the extra finances within the state. With the reformation and creation of Protestantism came bloody religious wars that lasted for several decades and ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg. John Calvin native of France who converted to Protestantism and was forced to flee to Switzerland. He authored a book titled ‘The Institutes of the Christian Religion’ which was a synthesis of the Protestant thought and emphasized the doctrine of predestination. King Henry VIII brought about the English Reformation because of his desire to divorce his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Catherine was the wife of Henry’s brother Arthur who died of sickness. Henry married Catherine soon after Arthur’s death in order to keep the royal family on the throne, however Catherine’s inability to bear a legitimate male heir left Henry desperate for divorce. The pope refused the divorce because it was against church beliefs. Henry found his way around this with the protestant reformation (creation of Anglican church) and the Act of Supremacy, and married his mistress Anne Boleyn. She was beheaded and he married a few more times before his death from syphilis. Act of Supremacy, 1534 proclaimed the king of England as the head of the church. Anabaptists a radical group of religious reformers who believed in adult baptism and complete separation of church and state. The Amish are decedents of groups such as this. Episcopalian church the American version of the English Anglican church. Huguenots French protestants that composed 4050% of the French nobility French Wars of Religion (15621598) religious wars between Catholics and Protestants in France that ended with the Edict of Nantes. Edict of Nantes issued by King Henry IV in 1598, this document legitimized Calvinist worship and permitted Calvinists, who were the majority of French Protestants, to engage in politics in France. King Phillip II a devout Catholic king of Spain who sparked a civil war in the Netherlands. Queen Elizabeth I daughter of Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII, she is considered to be one of the greatest monarchs in English history. During her reign the Spanish armada attempted to invade England in 1508, however the fleet was destroyed by a storm before reaching the shore. The people of England took this to be divine intervention which strengthen support of Queen Elizabeth. She was also referred to as the “virgin queen” because she never married. Social Crisis of the 1600’s The Mediterranean area entered into a steep economic decline as silver imports from Spanish colonies decline Witchcraft people in this period were fearful and unsettled which led to frenzy of witchcraft allegations and witchcraft trials. Most of those being accused of witchcraft were females over the age of 50 who were milkmaids or midwives. Mercantilism new economic trend that appeared during this time. Based on the ideas that the government should improve transportation facilities and grant trade monopolies to businesses. Also included tariffs (taxes) on foreign goods, and a the nation’s worth based on the amount of bullion (gold or silver). Thirty Years’ War (16181648) This war began as a struggle between Catholics and romans and ended as a conflict between nations. It concluded with the signing of the Peace of Westphalia and France emerged as a dominant nation. The Holy Roman Empire ended as well. King Gustavus Aldophus Swedish king who developed the first army of conscripts which employed tactics that were highly flexible. Conscript year round members of the military, ready for deployment at any time. Different from militias and minute men in that members are full time soldiers. Louis XIV (16431715) also referred to as “The Sun King”, he practiced absolutism as a monarch (divineright). During his reign wars were fought from 1667 to 1713. After his death, France was impoverished and acquired many enemies who were scorned by his totalitarian attitude.
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