COMM 1010 (Introduction to Human Communications) Week 2 Book Notes
COMM 1010 (Introduction to Human Communications) Week 2 Book Notes COMM 1010
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Snyder on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1010 at Auburn University Montgomery taught by Hilary Gamble in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 42 views.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
COMM 1010 Week 2 Book Notes: Chapter 4 – Language I. The Nature of Language A. Language: a collection of symbols used to share a message between individuals B. Language is Symbolic 1. Arbitrary things that are meant to represent an individual’s thoughts. C. Meanings are in people, not words. 1. To find meaning in language, look at the way people understand and make sense of words 2. The definitions of words found in the dictionary are not nearly as important as the meanings individuals associate them with. a. Don’t assume everyone uses the same words the same way. D. Language is RuleGoverned 1. Phonological rules: deal with how words are pronounced 2. Syntactic rules: decide how symbols are arranged. 3. Semantic rules: deal with the meanings of specific words a. Communication would be impossible without these rules because each person would have their own meaning for words. 4. Pragmatic rules: how people use language everyday II. The Power of Language A. Our language influences others and reflects our attitudes B. Language Shapes Attitudes 1. Naming a. Our names shapes how others think of us, the way we see ourselves, and the way we act. b. Names shape a child’s personal identity 2. Credibility a. Dr. Fox Hypothesis: A speaker who uses a lot of scholarly talk and big words in his or her speech, is more likely to be found credible by peers in that field of expertise. i. his credibility came more from his language than his ideas. 3. Status a. Speakers that use standard dialect seem more competent, selfconfident, and their content is liked more. 4. Sexism and Racism a. Outgroups are looked at repugnantly because of the derogatory terms used to respond to them. C. Language Reflects Attitudes 1. Power a. when you use “powerless” speech mannerisms, you look like you don’t have any authority b. people who invest in relationships don’t look powerful in the short run but in the long run these same people have a lot of influence in the long run. 2. Affiliation a. Convergence: changing your speaking style to fit someone else’s. b. Divergence: creating difference between your speaking style and someone else’s c. Linguistic Intergroup Bias: whether or not we think someone is in our ingroup. i. we tend to think we are less biased than we actually are. 3. Attraction and Interest a. Even when people are reluctant to speak candidly, the language they use can suggest their degree of interest and attraction toward a person, object, or idea. b. Clues that reflect our attitudes i. Demonstrative pronoun choice ii. Negation iii. Sequential Placement 4. Responsibility a. How to tell the speaker’s willingness to accept responsibility for his or her message. i. It/I statements ii. You/I statements iii. But statements iv. Questions vs. statements III. Troublesome Language A. The language of misunderstandings 1. Equivocal language a. equivocal words have more than one correct definition 2. Relative Words a. they gain their meaning by comparison b. some are so common that we assume that their meaning is clear. 3. Slang and Jargon a. slang is language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar group. b. regionalisms: terms that are understood by people who live in one geographic area but that are incomprehensible to outsiders. c. jargon: the special vocabulary functions as a kind of shorthand for people with common backgrounds and experience d. acronyms: initials of terms that are combined to make a word. 4. Overly abstract language a. abstraction ladder: a range of more to less abstract terms describing an event or object. i. lower terms focus on the specifics whereas higher terms are more general. b. abstract speech: speech that refers to events or objects vaguely c. problems with abstract language: i. stereotyping ii. confusion d. behavioral descriptions: how you describe something you can see and observe i. should answer three questions: Who is involved? In what circumstances do the behavior occur? What behaviors are involved? B. Disruptive Language 1. Just because you understand someone doesn’t mean you will not have conflict. 2. Confusing Facts and Opinions a. Factual statements: claims that can be verified as true or false b. Opinion statements: are based on the speaker’s beliefs 3. Confusing Facts and Inferences a. Inference statements: conclusions arrived at form an interpretation of evidence 4. Emotive Language a. emotive language: contains words that sound as if they’re describing something when they are really announcing the speaker’s attitude toward something. i. Emotive words sound like factual statements but are always opinions. C. Evasive Language 1. Euphemisms a. euphemisms: a pleasant word substituted for a more direct less pleasant word. i. euphemisms can be pretentious, confusing, and deceptive. b. equivocation: deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in more than one way. IV. Gender and Language A. Language similarities and differences by gender 1. Content 2. Reasons for Communicating a. men are more likely than emphasize making conversation fun while women’s conversations focus more frequently on feelings, relationships, and personal problems. b. female speech typically contains statements showing support for the other person, equality statements, and they try to keep the conversation going. i. men are more likely to just try and accomplish a job or task. 3. Conversational Style 4. Nongender Variables a. sex role: the social orientation that governs behavior – rather than their biological gender. B. Understanding Gender Differences in Language Use 1. Biological factors 2. Social factors C. Transcending Gender Boundaries COMM 1010 Week 2 Book Notes: Chapter 5 I. The Importance of Listening A. Leaders who are good listeners typically have more influence and stronger relationships with team members. 1. People with good listening skills are more likely than others to be hired and promoted II. Misconceptions About Learning A. Listening and hearing are not the same thing. 1. Hearing: the process in which sound waves strike the eardrum and cause vibrations that are transmitted to the brain. 2. Listening: occurs when the brain takes electrochemical impulses and turns them into a representation of the original sound and then gives them meaning. 3. Attending: paying attention to a signal 4. Understanding: making sense of a message 5. Responding: giving feedback to the speaker 6. Giving feedback helps bring clarity to the speaker’s message and it shows that you care about what the speaker is saying. 7. Good listeners showed that they were attentive by keeping eye contact and keeping up their facial expressions a. We only remember about half of what we hear immediately after hearing it. b. residual message: what we actually remember B. Listening is not a natural process 1. listening is more like speaking. Everybody does it but few people do it well. C. All listeners do not receive the same message 1. even though two or more people could be listening to the same message, they may not be hearing the same message. D. Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening 1. Mindful listening requires effort. a. mindless listening is passive while mindful listening requires effort. 2. Faulty listening behaviors a. pseudolistening: basically, it’s fake listening. i. people doing this type of listening make it look real. they look you in the eye, nod, smile, and may even answer you. b. selective listening: people responds to only the parts of a speaker’s remarks that they care about. c. defensive listening: people take innocent comments as personal attacks. i. many defensive listeners are suffering from shaky public images and avoid admitting this by protecting their insecurities onto others. d. ambushing: people listen carefully but they only want information that they can use to attack what they speaker has to say. e. insulated listening: people avoid talking about topics they don’t like f. insensitive listening: people often take other’s remarks at face value and fail to go further and see the deeper meaning. g. stage hogging: people try to turn the topic of conversations to themselves instead of showing interest in the speaker. 3. reasons for poor listening a. message overload: we hear too much speech every day to listen well b. rapid thoughts: we can understand 600 words per minute but only speak between 100 but 140 words per minute c. psychological noise i. we’re often wrapped up in personal concerns that are of more more immediate importance to us than sending ii. it takes a conscious effort to set aside your personal concerns if you expect to give others’ messages the attention they deserve. d. physical noise e. hearing problems f. faulty assumptions g. talking has more apparent advantages h. cultural differences i. media influence III. Types of Listening A. Task Oriented Learning: obtains information necessary to get a job done. D 1. Efficiency is key and time is valuable to those using this type of learning. 2. Look for key ideas. 3. Ask questions a. questioning: get additional information to clarify your ideas about what the speaker said. b. sincere questions are aimed at understanding others while counterfeit questions are really disguised attempts to send a message instead of receiving one. c. counterfeit questions i. questions that make statements ii. questions that carry hidden agendas iii. questions that seek correct answers iv. questions that are based on unchecked assumptions d. paraphrase: restate the speaker’s message in your own words 4. Take Notes a. don’t wait too long before beginning to jot down ideas b. record only key ideas c. develop a notetaking format B. Relational listening 1. Take time 2. listen for unexpressed thoughts and feelings 3. encourage further comments 4. listen for information before evaluating 5. separate the message from the speaker 6. search for value C. Critical listening 1. examine the speaker’s evidence and reasoning a. is the evidence recent enough? b. is enough evidence presented? c. is the evidence from a reliable source? d. can the evidence be interpreted in more than one way 2. evaluate the speaker’s credibility a. is the speaker competent? b. is the speaker impartial? 3. examine emotional agenda IV. Listening and Social Supports A. supportive listening aims to help the speaker deal with personal problems. B. Social Support and Mediated Communication 1. online and in person support are different because online presents an anonymity factor. C. Gender and Social Support 1. women are more likely than men to give supportive responses. 2. men are more likely to offer help or divert to another topic. D. Types of Supportive Responses 1. Advising: helping by offering a solution a. be confident that the advice is correct. b. ask yourself whether the person seems willing to accept your device. c. be certain that the receiver won’t blame you if the advice doesn’t work out. d. Deliver your advice supportively, in a face saving manner. 2. Judging: it’s all about evaluation a. Judgements must meet two standards to be well received. i. the person with the problem actually wants help ii. your judgement is constructive, not a put down. 3. Analyzing a. when it’s actually helpful to offer an analysis i. offer your interpretation in a tentative way rather than is an absolute fact ii. when it has reasonable chance of being correct iii. the other person will be receptive to it. iv. when your motives for offering it are in the right place. 4. Questioning a. follow these principles to have the best questioning practices i. don’t ask questions just to satisfy your own curiosity ii. be sure your questions won’t confuse or distract the person you’re trying to help. iii. don’t use questions to disguise your suggestions or criticism 5. Comforting a. follow these when trying to use a comforting response i. make sure your remarks are sincere ii. be sure the other person can accept your support 6. Prompting a. during this, using silences and brief statements of encouragement to draw others out, and in doing to help them solve their own problems. 7. Reflecting a. use both thoughts and feelings b. when you paraphrase use these principles to guide you. i. is the problem complex enough? ii. do you have the necessary time and concern? iii. are you genuinely interested in helping the other person? iv. can you withhold judgment? v. is your paraphrasing in proportion to other responses? E. When and How to Help 1. make sure your support is wanted. 2. consider the situation, the other person, and your own strengths, and weaknesses. COMM 1010 Week 2 Notes: Chapter 11 – Preparing and Presenting Your Speech I. Getting Started A. Choosing your topic B. Defining your purpose C. Writing a purpose statement 1. your purpose statement should describe your specific purpose which is exactly what you want your speech to accomplish and stems from your general purpose 2. Properties of an Effective Purpose Statement a. It should be result oriented. b. It should be specific. c. It should be realistic. D. Stating your Thesis 1. Almost always delivered directly to your audience. II. Analyzing the Speaking Situation A. The listener: Audience analysis 1. Audience Purpose 2. Demographics: characteristics of your audience that can be categorized. a. How demographic characteristics might affect your speech plan i. cultural diversity ii. gender iii. age iv. group membership v. number of people 3. Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values a. attitudes reflect at predisposition to view you or your topic in a favorable or unfavorable way. b. beliefs deal with the truth of something c. values: deeply rooted to a concept’s inherent worth or worthiness. B. The Occasion 1. Circumstances surrounding the occasion of a speech a. time b. place c. audience expectations III. Gathering Information A. Online Experience 1. don’t let your use of the web overrule how much you use library research B. Library Research 1. Library catalog a. each work is filed according to subject, author, and title, so you can look for general topics as well as for specific books and authors 2. Reference Works a. these are good for uncovering basic information, definitions, descriptions, and sources for further investigations 3. Periodicals a. these are a good source of high interest, up to date information on your topic. 4. Non Print Materials 5. Databases: computerized collections of highly credible information from a wide variety of sources C. Interviewing D. Survey Research: distribute questionnaire forms that people can respond to. 1. one advantage of these is that it is one of the best ways to find out about your audience. 2. one disadvantage of conducting your own survey is that it might not be considered credible as material published in the library IV. Managing Communication Apprehension A. Facilitative and Debilitative Communication Apprehension 1. Previous Negative Experience a. most people are uncomfortable doing anything in public, especially if it is a form of performance in which our talents and abilities are being evaluated. 2. Irrational Thinking a. Beliefs of events that lead to irrational thinking i. catastrophic failure ii. perfection iii. approval iv. overgeneralization B. Overcoming Debilitative Communication Apprehension 1. Strategies to help you manage debilitative communication apprehension a. use your nervousness to your advantage b. understand the difference between rational and irrational fears c. maintain a receiver orientation d. keep your attitude positive e. always be prepared. V. Choosing a Type of Delivery A. Extemporaneous 1. planned in advance but delivered spontaneously 2. these speeches are conversational B. Impromptu 1. given off of the top of your head without any preparation C. Manuscript 1. read word for word form prepared text. D. Memorized 1. learn these by heart. 2. least effective and excessively formal VI. Practicing the Speech A. a smooth and natural delivery is the result of extensive practice. VII. Guidelines for Delivery A. the audience will interpret your feelings by trusting your nonverbal cues more than your words. B. Visual Aspects of Delivery 1. Appearance a. speakers appear to be more credible when they look businesslike 2. Movement a. control involuntary movement by moving when you feel the need to 3. Posture 4. Facial Expression 5. Eye Contact a. eye contact increases your direct contact with your audience and control your nervousness C. Auditory Aspects of Delivery 1. Volume a. should be loud enough so that your audience can hear you but not too loud so that they feel 2. Rate a. the speed at which you speak 3. Pitch a. the highness or lowness of your voice b. as you speed up or become louder, your pitch will rise 4. Articulation a. pronouncing all parts of every word b. problems with incorrect articulation caused by deletion (leaving off parts of words), substitution (replacing parts of words), addition (adding parts to words), and overlapping two or more words together (slurring).
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