Public Policy 374 - week 1 notes
Public Policy 374 - week 1 notes POLI 374 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalee Stanton on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 374 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Miller in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Public Policy in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
What is Public Policy? 8/22/16 What is a Policy? A purposive course of action (or inaction) that an individual or group consistently follows in dealing with a problem/situation. o It can be in the public or private sector A course of government action or inaction in What is a public policy? response to public problems o Includes the formally approved laws that enact policy as well as the regulations and practices of agencies that implement programs What gov’t does at all levels Public problem: problem that the public widely perceives as unacceptable and require gov’t intervention. o Problems not being entirely solved by the market or individuals themselves o Does it need a new course of action? Why do we have public policies? I. To promote various societal goals a. Protecting lives b. Encourage economic growth c. Prevent property damage II. To promote some view of the common good III. Some views of common good are perceived as shifting together IV. Sometimes the gov’t diverges from the public’s view of the common good (or what the gov’t should be doing to promote the common good.) V. In a democracy, we elect representatives to represent our interests Why does the gov’t get involved? I. Agenda setting II. Political reasons: a. Policy action by the gov’t can have varying political feasibility b. Different policy actions at different times will help politicians with reelection III. Moral or ethical reasons: a. Human right, child poverty IV. Economic reasons: a. When price markets are not efficient ( market failure) b. When the marketplace does not take care of Market failures: 4 types a problem 1 . Monopolies 2. Externalities: decisions or actions of those involved in a transaction that affect other parties a. Negative externality: third party harmed by a transaction i. Pollution ii. Home foreclosures b. Positive externality: third party benefits from the transition i. Education 3 . Information failure a. Incomplete information for consumer to make good decisions on their own b. Less of a problem for certain items i. Clothes c. Bigger problem i. Medicine ii. Food 4 . Protection of public or collective goods a. Cannot exclude someone from getting the good and we can all jointly consume the good simultaneously i. National security ii. Public parks b. Governments protect the collective Why study public policy? resources Improves our ability to make educated policy decisions o Make informed arguments and analyses Improves citizens ability to participate and make choices Basic concepts in policymaking o Increase knowledge of policy issues and process Government o Institutions and political processes through which public policy choices are made Politics o Determining who gets what, when and how Lasswell o Influence of a variety of players o Electoral politics are at the heart of policymaking Policy analysis Contexts of public policy: o The use of reason and evidence to choose the best policy option among a number of alternatives I. Social context a. Societal changes i. Population changes II. Economic context a. State of the economy i. Growing economy III. Political context a. Political/ideological issues i. Who is in power? IV. Governing context a. Structure of government i. Separation of powers Some policy tools: V. Cultural context a. Values, beliefs – what people view as problems: their preferences for how to solve them Offer services directly Grants/ contracts Regulate o The government regulates our behavior Tax incentives or breaks o Encourage behavior o Sin taxes – discourage the use of Cigs Educate
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