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Psychology 101, Chapter 1, Week 1

by: Phoebe Notetaker

Psychology 101, Chapter 1, Week 1 Psych 101

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Social Science > Psych 101 > Psychology 101 Chapter 1 Week 1
Phoebe Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes are all the vocabulary words and their definitions from Chapter 1.
General Psychology
Class Notes
psych101, Intro to Psychology




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 08/23/16
Chapter 1 Vocabulary  Levels of analysis­ rungs on a ladder of analysis, with lower levels tied most closely to  biological influences and higher levels tied most closely to social influences  Multiply determined­ caused by many factors  Individual differences­ variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality and  behavior  Naïve realism­ belief that we see the world precisely as it is  Scientific theory­ explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world  Hypothesis­ testable prediction derived from a scientific theory  Confirmation bias­ tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny,  dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them  Belief perseverance­ tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts  them  Metaphysical claim­ assertion about the world that is not testable  Pseudoscience­ set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t  Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis­ escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to  protect their theory from falsification  Patternicity­ the tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli  Terror management theory­ theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with  an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews  Scientific skepticism­ approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on  persuasive evidence before accepting them  Critical thinking­ set of skills for evaluating all claims in an open­minded and careful fashion  Correlation­causation fallacy­ error of assuming that because one thing is associated with  another, it must cause the other  Variable­ anything that can vary  Falsifiable­ capable of being disproved  Replicability­ when a study’s findings are able to be duplicated ideally by independent  investigators  Decline effect­ fact that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be shrinking  over time  Introspection­ method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental  experiences  Structuralism­ school of psychology that aimed to identify the basic element of psychological experience  Functionalism­ school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of  psychological characteristics  Natural selection­ principle that organisms that possess favorable adaptations survive and  reproduce at a higher rate than do other organisms  Behaviorism­ school of psychology that focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning  by looking at observable behavior  Cognitive psychology­ school of psychology that proposes that thinking is central to  understanding behavior  Cognitive neuroscience­ relatively new field of psychology that examines the relation  between brain functioning and thinking  Psychoanalysis­ school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that focuses on internal  psychological processes of which we’re unaware  Evolutionary psychology­ discipline that applies Darwin’s theory of natural selection to  human and animal behavior  Basic research­ research examining how the mind works  Applied research­ research examining how we can use basic research to solve real­world  problems


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