Psychology 101, Chapter 1, Week 1
Psychology 101, Chapter 1, Week 1 Psych 101
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Phoebe Notetaker on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 101 at University of South Carolina taught by levens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Social Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
Chapter 1 Vocabulary Levels of analysis rungs on a ladder of analysis, with lower levels tied most closely to biological influences and higher levels tied most closely to social influences Multiply determined caused by many factors Individual differences variations among people in their thinking, emotion, personality and behavior Naïve realism belief that we see the world precisely as it is Scientific theory explanation for a large number of findings in the natural world Hypothesis testable prediction derived from a scientific theory Confirmation bias tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and deny, dismiss, or distort evidence that contradicts them Belief perseverance tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Metaphysical claim assertion about the world that is not testable Pseudoscience set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t Ad hoc immunizing hypothesis escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification Patternicity the tendency to detect meaningful patterns in random stimuli Terror management theory theory proposing that our awareness of our death leaves us with an underlying sense of terror with which we cope by adopting reassuring cultural worldviews Scientific skepticism approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them Critical thinking set of skills for evaluating all claims in an openminded and careful fashion Correlationcausation fallacy error of assuming that because one thing is associated with another, it must cause the other Variable anything that can vary Falsifiable capable of being disproved Replicability when a study’s findings are able to be duplicated ideally by independent investigators Decline effect fact that the size of certain psychological findings appears to be shrinking over time Introspection method by which trained observers carefully reflect and report on their mental experiences Structuralism school of psychology that aimed to identify the basic element of psychological experience Functionalism school of psychology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes of psychological characteristics Natural selection principle that organisms that possess favorable adaptations survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other organisms Behaviorism school of psychology that focuses on uncovering the general laws of learning by looking at observable behavior Cognitive psychology school of psychology that proposes that thinking is central to understanding behavior Cognitive neuroscience relatively new field of psychology that examines the relation between brain functioning and thinking Psychoanalysis school of psychology, founded by Sigmund Freud, that focuses on internal psychological processes of which we’re unaware Evolutionary psychology discipline that applies Darwin’s theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior Basic research research examining how the mind works Applied research research examining how we can use basic research to solve realworld problems
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