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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-2500 at Auburn University taught by Shobnom Ferdous in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Anatomy and Physiology 8/22/16 1:43 PM 3 Main Themes: 1. Interconnection between structure and function 2. Integrative connection 3. Adaptive nature of our body: inter-relationship between environment and body’s response History of A&P: • Hippocrates: Greek physician, “Father of Western Medicine”, Hippocratic Oath Anatomy: Study of structure (Greek- “a cutting up) Physiology: Study of function (Greek- “relationship to nature”) • Structure is always related to function Subdivisions of Anatomy: • Gross (Macroscopic Anatomy): Study of large, visible structures • Microscopic Anatomy: Study of small, nonvisible structures (cells, atoms, molecules), need an instrument to see Atom –> Molecule –> Organelle –> Smooth Muscle Cell –> Smooth Muscle Tissue –> Blood Vessel Organ –> Cardiovascular System Organ Systems: • Integumentary System: Skin • Skeletal System • Muscular System • Nervous System • Endocrine System • Cardiovascular System • Lymphatic System • Digestive System • Respiratory System • Urinary System • Reproductive System Requirements of Organisms: • Water • Food • Oxygen • Heat • Pressure o Atmospheric: important for breathing o Hydrostatic: Keeps blood flowing Homeostasis: Body’s maintenance of a stable internal environment • Stimulus (Chance occurs in internal environment) –> Receptors –> Control Center (Change is compared to set point) –> Effectors –> Response (Change is corrected) Development Anatomy: Study of structural changes that occur between conception and adulthood Embryology: study of development before birth Systemic Anatomy: cardiologist Regional Anatomy: nose, throat, mouth Radiological Anatomy: Study of anatomy using noninvasive technology, x-ray Anatomic Position: • Standing erect • Facing forward • Upper limbs hanging to the sides • Palms face forward • Any time you refer to a subject you always assume anatomic position Supine: Subject is laying on their back face upward Prone: subject is laying on their body facing down Directional Terms: *know diagram • Superior: Towards head, above; a.k.a cranial cephalic • Inferior: Away from head • Bilateral: two-sided, affecting both sides equally • Ipsilateral: located on same side of body Serosa (serous membrane): Thin, double layered membrane, lines walls of ventral body cavity and outer surface organs Visceral Serosa: Covers organs Parietal Serosa: Lines cavity walls Pleurisy/Peritonitis: Causes roughening of pleurae or peritoneum causes organs to stick together and drag across one another- very painfully Pleurisy: Inflammation of pleura Peritonitis: Inflammation of peritoneum - Understanding the structure of the body’s cells explains why permeability of the plasma membrane can affect treatment Cell: Basic structural and functional unit of life • How well the entire organism functions depends on individual and combined activities of all of its cells • Structure and function are complementary • Continuity of life has cellular basis Cell diversity: Over 200 different types of human cells Generalized cell: All cells have some common structures and functions Human cells have three basic parts: • Plasma membrane: flexible outer boundary • Cytoplasm: intracellular fluid containing organelles • Nucleus: DNA containing control center Specialized cells: • Red Blood Cell: Small, no nucleus • Skeletal muscle: Cylindrical, multi-nucleated, long • Neuron: Cell body with axon and dendrites • Sperm Cell: flagellated Plasma membrane: • Outer boundary of the cell • Separates inside of cell from outside of cell • Control what enters/exits cell • Very thin • Need electron microscope to see • Also known as the “cell membrane” • Acts as an active barrier separating intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid • Structure: o Consists of membrane lipids that form a flexible lipid bilayer o Specialized membrane proteins float through this fluid membrane, resulting in constantly changing patterns § Referred to as fluid mosaic patter o Surface sugars from glycocalyx (consists of sugars sticking out of cell surface, some sugars are attached to lipids and some proteins; every cell type has different patterns of this “sugar coating”, functions as specific biological marker for cell-to-cell recognition, allows immune system to recognize “self” vs. “non-self”) o Membrane structures help to hold cells together through cell junction • Composition: o Lipid bilayer: § Largely phospholipids: 75% § Polar head: hydrophilic, phosphate head § Non-polar tails: hydrophobic, fatty acid tail § Glycolipids: Lipids with a sugar group attached, 5% § Cholesterol: 20% of the plasma membrane, increases membrane stability o Lipid rafts: § On outer membrane surface § May be attached to proteins so serve as site for receptors, or proteins needed for cell signaling, or endocytosis § Dynamic assembly of saturated phospholipids, sphingolipids and cholesterol § Important for various functions o Plasma membrane proteins: § Integral proteins ú Transport: Channels (let certain substances pass in and out of the cell) and carriers (substance binding induces conformational change- change shape proteins), enzymes (catalysts- speed reactions), or receptors (bind substances- relay messages to cell interior) ú Cell junctions: • Tight junctions: integral proteins of neighboring cells fuse together • Desmosomes: like ‘Velcro’: protein filaments extend from adjacent cells and like together • Gap junction: channels of adjacent cells connect ú Cell identity: signature of the cell that gives it specific identity via glycoproteins § Peripheral proteins § Allow cell communication with environment § Make up about half the mass of plasma membrane § Most have specialized membrane functions § Some float freely, and some are tethered Basic Structural Similarities of cells: • Plasma/cell membrane • Cytoplasm/ cytoskeleton • Organelles • Cytosol: thick, semi-transparent, jelly-like fluid, mostly water Tay Sachs disease: Affects specific enzymes found in lysosomes, that break down lipids in brain and nerve cells. Without enzyme lipids build up and damage nerve cells; blindness and seizures Mitochondrial Disease: Many different types; symptoms from muscle weakness to poor growth, seizures, organ failure Anatomy and Physiology 8/22/16 1:43 PM Transport process: Substances move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration Electrochemical gradient: concentration gradient + electrical gradient across plasma membrane and which direction (into of out of the cell) substance needs to go Diffusion: Collisions between ,molecules in areas of high concentration causes them to be scattered into areas with less concentration • Difference is called concentration gradient • Diffusion is movement of molecules down their concentration gradients (from high to low) • Energy is not required • Speed of diffusion is influenced by size of molecule and temperature Facilitated Diffusion: Substances move across membrane by protein channels or carrier proteins; substances include: • Glucose • Amino Acids • Ions Passive Transport: no ATP needed; substances move down their concentration gradient (from high to low), 4 types • Osmosis: Water moving through a semi-permeable membrane • Bulk Flow (Filtration): Movement of solutes and water from high pressure to low pressure • Simple diffusion of fat soluble molecules directly though the phospholipid bilayer; Lipid soluble molecule • Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion through a channel protein; mostly ions selected on basis of size and charge; Substances include oxygen, carbon dioxide, lipid soluble vitamins Active Transport: ATP needed; ATP needed to move substances against their concentration gradient (high to low) • Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion via protein carrier specific for one chemical; binding of substrate causes transport protein to change shape; Small molecules • Bind specifically and eversible with substrate being moved • Some carriers transport more than one substance • Primary active transport: Required energy comes directly from ATP hydrolysis (Ex. Sodium/Potassium pump • Secondary active transport: Required energy is obtained indirectly from ionic gradients created by primary active transport • Bulk (Vesicular) Transport: Large substances transported in vesicles o Endocytosis: bringing substances inside the cell § Phagocytosis: engulfing molecules/bacteria (“cell eating”) § Pinocytosis: Engulfing water (“cell drinking”) o Exocytosis: Removing substance from the cell 8/22/16 1:43 PM
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