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Chapter 1 Textbook Notes & Week 1 Lecture

by: Sydney Grant

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes & Week 1 Lecture Psychology 477

Marketplace > University of Michigan > Psychology > Psychology 477 > Chapter 1 Textbook Notes Week 1 Lecture
Sydney Grant
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About this Document

This document includes week 1's lecture notes and detailed notes from Chapter 1 of the textbook.
Child and Adolescent Psychology
Dr Sheryl Olson
Class Notes
adolescent, mental, health




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Grant on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 477 at University of Michigan taught by Dr Sheryl Olson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Psychology in Psychology at University of Michigan.

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Date Created: 08/24/16
Chp. 1: Introduction to Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents  The issues that research studies in abnormal child psychology seek to address: o Defining what constitutes normal and abnormal behavior for children of different ages, sexes and ethnic and cultural backgrounds o Identifying the causes and correlates of abnormal child behavior o Making predictions about long-term outcomes o Developing and evaluating methods for treatment and/or prevention  Important features that distinguish most child and adolescent disorders: o When adults seek services for children, it often is not clear whose problem it is  Children don’t refer themselves  They also don’t have much choice in the treatment o Many child and adolescent problems involve failure to show expected developmental progress o Many problem behaviors shown by children and youths are not entirely abnormal o Interventions for children and adolescents often are intended to promote further development, rather than merely to restore a previous level of functioning  Children were never considered capabale of having th disorders until the 18 century – most were looked over. o Massachusetts’ Stubborn Child Act of 1654 – permitted parents to put “stubborn” children to death for misbehaving o Some laws into the mid-1800s allowed children with severe developmental disabilities to be kept in cages and cellars  Emergence of Social Conscience o Society started to recognize that we must address the special needs of some of its members o John Locke – believed in individual rights  children should be raised with thought & care instead of indifference & harsh treatment o moral insanity – means of accounting for nonintellectual forms of abnormal child behavior o Dorothea Dix – established 32 humane mental hospitals for the treatment of trouble youth o Case study: Victor of Aveyron – “wild boy of Averyron”  Found in the woods – had lived there his whole life  Was “mentally arrested” from neglect of social and educational environment  Jean Mar Itard – believed environmental stimulation could humanize the child  After 5 years, Victor could identify objects and letters and preferred being social to being secluded  This is the first case of an adult really trying to understand the mind and emotions of a child with special needs  Early Biological Attributions o 1909 – Clifford Beers – spearheaded efforts to change the plight of others suffering from mental disorders  He wanted to raise the standards of care and disseminate reliable information o Because mental disorders were attributed to biological concerns, interventions were limited to those with visible and prominent symptoms o In the early 20 century, those with mental illness (especially youth) were viewed negatively, being blamed for crimes and other social ills  Early Psychological Attributions o Psychoanalytic theory – influenced advances in our ways of thinking about the causes and treatment of mental disorders  Freud was the first tot give meaning to the concept of mental disorder by linking it to childhood experiences  Anna Freud (his daughter) helped to point out that children’ symptoms were related more to developmental stages than were those of adults o Behaviorism – focused on classical conditioning (Pavlov)  John Watson – “Father of Behaviorism” – known for his theory of emotions (normal to abnormal behavior)  Little Albert – showed no fear to ratand touched it o Watson would make a loud noise every time Albert tried to touch the rat o Eventually, when Albert saw the rat, he would cry and try to crawl away  Evolving Forms of Treatment o Rene Spitz (1945) – harmful impact of institutional life on children’s growth and development  20 year rapid decline in the number of children in situations, while number of children in foster and family homes increased o Behavior therapy emerged in 1950s and 1960s – based on operant and classical conditioning principles  Continued to expand in scope and has emerged as a prominent form of therapy for a wide range of children’s disorders What is Abnormal Behavior in Children and Adolescents?  Three prominent features of psychological disorders: o The person shows some degree of distress, such as fear or sadness o His or her behavior indicates some degree of disability, such as impairment that substantially interferes with or limits activity in one or more important areas of functioning, including physical, emotional, cognitive and behavioral areas o Such distress and disability increase the risk of further suffering or harm, such as death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom  Competence o Child and adult mental health is often challenged by stigma (a cluster of negative attitudes and beliefs that motivates fear, rejection, avoidance and discrimination with respect to people w mental illnesses) o Boundaries between normal and abnormal conditions or distinctions among different abnormal conditions are not easily drawn o Minority families (socioeconomic disadvantages) - racism, prejudice, discrimination, oppression and segregation  these influence a child’s adaptation and development  Developmental Pathways o This refers to the sequence and timing of particular behaviors and possible relationships between behaviors over time  Helps us to understand the course and nature of normal and abnormal development o Two examples of developmental pathways:  Multifinality – the concept that various outcomes may stem from similar beginnings  Equifinality – the concept that similar outcomes stem from different early experiences and developmental pathways Risk and Resilience  Resilience – varies according to the type of stress; it is seen in children across cultures, despite the extraordinary circumstances that some may face  Risk factors – increase the child’s likelihood of developing a problem o These and protective factors should be thought of as processes rather than absolutes The significance of mental health problems among children and youth  Large majority of children who need mental health services do not receive them  Children’s developmental impairments may have lasting negative impact on later life  1 in 4 children are affected by poverty in the united states  Hyperactivity, autism and disruptive behavior disorders are more common in young boys  Anxiety, mood disorders, depression and eating disorders are more common in youg girls  Boys tend to have early onset disorders, while girls tend to peak in disorders in adolescence  While disorders don’t show racial differences, access to proper care is proven to be more difficult for racial minorities  Cultural issues: o What is seen as social maladjustment in Western culture is seen as powerful in some Asian cultures (shyness and oversensitivity)  Nearly 1 million verified cases of child abuse and neglect occur annually in the United States Day 2 lecture notes: st  Children’s Mental Health: US in the 21 century o 1/5 U.S. Children have mental health problems that significantly impair functioning o 10-20% have at least one psychological disorder o 50-75% of children who require mental health services do not receive them  Child and Adolescent Psychopathology o Relatively young o Rooted in evolving social concepts of “children” and “childhood”  Adultmorphism – view that childhood behavior disorders represent downward extensions of adult disorders  This has been strongly discredited, but is still in the system o Defining psychopathology in children and youth  What do we mean when we say that a child and adolescent has a “psychological disorder?”  How do we determine clinical significance?  Ex: Child – oppositional behavior; throwing tantrums  How old? How is the child with other authority figures? o Deviance from developmental norms  Normal development: continuous change and reorganization  Cannot label child as “deviant” without knowing what is normally expected for his/her age group  Concept of developmental norm (average when most kids acquire different skills)  “Norms” just refer to statistical averages  Video clip: 3 year old with father  Clean-up task  parent must get child to put toys away  There are many ways in which a child’s behavior can depart from age norms:  Developmental delay – James (3) didn’t begin using spoken language until 2 ½  Developmental regression: Sonya (2) had normal ndvelopmental milestones, but after 2 birthday became withdrawn and stopped talking  Developmental deviance – Mary was shy and had difficulty making friends. At 10 – depressed and felt devil was trying to hurt her and became preoccupied with germs. Suicidal talk and tendencies o Whose definition?  Perceptions of significant others  Children do not normally refer themselves and they do not have much influence over their treatment  Why are most children referred?  Oppositional behavior; deviance  Sources of variability in adults “thresholds” for defining deviance o Knowledge of developmental norms o Personal mental health/emotional problems o Stress levels o Economic struggle  Disagreements between informants: what do they reflect? o Working with other systems – ex: justice system o ****If you lose the family, you lose the child.**** o Sometimes the best thing you can do to change a child’s life is to change the parents o For the children who may not be referred by a significant other, they mostly end up suffering in silence without mental health treatment o Parents’ perceptions of children is a very complex variable o Children behave very different in various settings (mom and dad, teacher, etc.)  Is disorder “in” the child? o DSM approach: Psychopathology is dysfunction that resides “in” the child and interferes with child’s ability to function effectively in social world  DSM V: “…in the psychology, biology, or developmental processes underlying mental function.”  Makes it seem that kids will never be separated from their disorder  Kazdin cases (referrals to disruptive behavior clinic): o Ex: 10 year old – mother didn’t come in because she shot husband and was in jail – wanted to get treatment for her kid’s aggressive behavior o Example of abnormal attachment behavior: baby acts as if mom doesn’t exist when mom comes in room; when examiner came in room, baby reacted (history of physical abuse at home at 15 months) – infants have very few defensive mechanisms  Pain and suffering o Emotional distress is an important criterion for defining psychopathology o Example 1: distressed teen  17 year old began getting depressed and had suicidal ideations; made suicide attempt o It’s a lot harder to determine these feelings with school age kids o Adults  sadness; kids  irritability  Other criteria: o Frequency o Severity o Chronicity o Pattern of problem behaviors o Multiple situations o Gender norms o Cultural norms  Disorders do not tend to travel alone  Video clip – same 3 yr old boy with mom o Turned task into game


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