Physio Chem 150 Notes Week One
Physio Chem 150 Notes Week One Chem 150
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna S. on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 150 at Xavier University taught by Dr. Stroud in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Physiological Chemistry in Chemistry at Xavier University.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Physiological Chemistry 150 Lecture: Week One 08/22-08/26 2016 Definitions: Chemistry: the study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter: anything that has mass (substance) and occupies space Can posses both physical and chemical properties, and may undergo physical and chemical changes Chemicals: substances that have composition and properties wherever found Made my Chemists Ex: lipstick, plastic bottles, toothpaste, soap Chemicals when cooking: metal alloy, silicone dioxide (glass), fruit and vegetables (pesticides) Density: D= mass/volume; a ratio of mass to space occupied Physical Properties Can be observed without altering the composition or identity of the material Examples: - color - size, shape - odor - length - state of matter: solid, liquid, gas - temperature - mass - solubility - density * bolded texts indicates the most important properties to describe an object Chemical Properties Pertain to the ability of the matter to react (or interact) As you observe, the matter is changed Examples: - Rust or oxidize - Flammability - Corrosiveness Physical Change Alters the state or form of matter but not its content or composition Examples: ice to water, evaporation of kool-aid, chopping vegetables Chemical Change Results in a change in composition and identity of the matter Examples: rotting watermelon, sour milk, bread rising, gasoline burning Chemical change is indicated by: o The formation of a gas o The irreversible formation of a solid precipitate (from reacting solutions) o Changes in color indicating new substances o Release or absorption of heat Exothermic: gives off heat Endothermic: absorbs heat The Scientific Method Is a set of general principles that helps to describe how a scientist thinks Evidence and data-based 1. Observation: look at the nature of the substance and ask questions. What does it look like? How does it smell? 2. Hypothesis: give a possible explanation of what you observe 3. Experiments: several may be done to test your hypothesis 4. Conclusion: explains what you gathered and says whether or not your hypothesis is true or false Study Check Examples: You bake a cake and notice that it is flat because you forgot to add baking powder. Observation You are running late to dinner with your friends. They think you are late because of the traffic. Hypothesis Studies shows that alcohol hand sanitizer reduce germs more than soap and water. Conclusion Measurements Used to convey information about matter Data can be qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative (how much) Physical quantities must consist of a number and unit o Examples: 8ft, 64in, 123lbs Metric Units Mass: 1kg = 2.2lbs, 1kg = 1000g, 454g = 1lb * The mass of a nickel is 5.01g on an electronic scale Length: 1m = 1.09 yd, 1m = 39.4 inches Volume: 1L = 1.06qt, 1qt = 946mL, 1L = 1000mL Time: second(s) Temperature: Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin Water freezes at 32 degrees F and 0 degrees C The Kelvin scale is used for extreme weather; absolute 0 is in K o Kelvin = 273 + Celsius o Fahrenheit = 1.8 x Celsius + 32 o Celsius = (Fahrenheit – 32) / 1.8 Energy Units: 1 calorie = 4.18 joules, 1000 calories = 1kilocalorie Understanding Metric Prefixes Kilo: 1000 x Centi: 1/100 or 0.01 Milli: 1/1,000 or 0.001 Micro (micron): 1/1,000,000 or 0.000001 Examples: - Earth: 12,756 km - Sand: 0.5-2mm - A single strand of hair: 40-300 microns - Baseball: 6.2cm Significant Figures In a number, the sig. fig. are all the digits including the estimated digit Tell the real information about the measurement (precise and accurate) Significant Figures are all non-zero digits and zeros between digits Zeros that act as placeholders before digits are NOT significant figures If the zero is to the right and at the end of the decimal, they are sig. figs. Examples: - 1 thousand = 1 sig.fig. - 1,025 dollars = 4 sig. fig. - 0.001026m = 4 sig. fig. - 0.0100g = 3 sig. fig. Scientific Notation If the value is larger than 10, the exponent will be positive (+) If the original value is smaller than 10, the exponent will be negative (-) Continue to move the decimal left or right until you have one number to the left of the decimal Examples: - $1,300,000,000 (2 sig. fig.) = 1.3 x 109+ 3+ - $ 1,025 (3 sig. fig.) = 1.25 x 10 -4 - 0.0001026m (4 sig. fig.) = 1.026 x 10 Dimensional Analysis and Conversion Factors When do you use it? When you measure a quantity in one unit but must report it in another unit and when you have info in one unit, but report or interpret it for another situation The Factor Label Method (Dimensional Analysis) is a systematic approach Solve problems by multiplying a measurement by one or more conversion factors with units Conversion factors are ratios or fractions derived from definitions or equalities General Format: Quantity wanted = quantity given x conversion factor/s Unit wanted = unit given x conversion factor/s Example: 12in = 1ft Conversion factors = 1ft/12in or 12in/1ft * Use the conversion factors so that what you do not want is cancelled and what you do want stays in the equation Practice Problem How many ounces are there in 3.5 pounds? 1. ___ oz = 3.5lbs 2. Conversion factor/s: 16oz = 1lb 16oz/1lb or 1lb/16oz 3. ___ oz = 3.5lbs 3.5lb/1 x 16oz/1lb = 56oz Utilizing Density What is the mass of 1L of gas, where the density of gas is 0.660g/m 1. Given: 1.00L and D = 0.660g/1mL OR 1mL/0.660g 2. Conversion Factor/s: 1L =1000mL 1000/1mL or 1L/1000mL 3. g = 1L/1 x 0.660g/1mL x 1000mL/1L = 660g (3 sig. fig.)
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