Lecture 1, Week 1 Notes
Lecture 1, Week 1 Notes PSY-B 344
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Malissa Notetaker on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-B 344 at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis taught by Dr. Christine Czachowski in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Learning in Neuroscience at Indiana University Purdue University - Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Psychology 344 Learning Lecture 1 8/22/16 ● What is learning? ○ “Learning is an enduring change in the mech anisms of a behavior involving specific stimuli and/or responses that results from prior experience with those stimuli and responses.” ○ It is one of the biological processes that help adaptation to an environment ● What is the difference in learning and performance? ○ Learning has to do with the mechanisms of behavior ■ Can happen without observation ● Example Teaching a person a new fact can’t observe the learning ○ Performance can change for other reasons other than learning ○ “Performance action at any particular time, often requiring proper motivation” ● An example of learning vs. performance Tolman’s Maze Experiments ○ Used 2 groups of rats one that had been in the maze before and one that had not ■ No food in the maze, no start and finish ○ Then put both groups in the maze, tested with a “baited” prize ○ The rat that had explored the maze before found the food faster. ■ This was because the rat had experienced and learned the basic map of the maze ■ Showed that learning took place w/o reinforcements ○ Experiments that are trying to understand mechanisms of behavior are created to show that performance of a behavior does mean that learning took place ● Why doesn’t behavior always point to learning? ○ Need to exclude other possible causes that can influence a change in behavior ■ Fatigue ■ Alteration in physiological or motivational state ■ Change in a situation/ environment ■ Maturation ● Instincts vs. Learning ○ The two means by which an organism can respond or adapt are instincts (being born with the behavior due to genetics) or learning the behavior ○ Disadvantages of learning: ■ Takes time & energy ■ Can have negative outcomes ● Trial and error are needed to learn in some situations, the error can result in harm or death ● Opportunity costs since there was a time when there was no correct response given ○ Advantages of learning: ■ Can acquire new tricks helps some animals master tricks that nonlearning animals can’t ■ The learned tricks can be better than the instinctive tricks ■ Learners have the ability to adapt to environmental changes, whereas instinctive do not ■ Learners have the ability to colonize new land ● Can live in multiple habitats
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