Human Anatomy and Physiology, Week 14-18 (Final Exam Notes)
Human Anatomy and Physiology, Week 14-18 (Final Exam Notes) BIOL 312
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlyn Wiercioch on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 312 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Matthew J. Foradori in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Anatomy and Physiology Exam 4 Notes Chapter 16: Sensory Physiology 1) Overview/General Information a) Transducers- structures (in receptors) that convert different energy forms into nerve impulses b) Functional classification of receptors (based on type of stimulus) i) Chemoreceptors (1)Stimuli= chemicals (2)Ex. Taste buds, olfactory epithelium ii) Photoreceptors (1)Stimuli=light (2)Ex. Rods & cones of retina iii) Thermoreceptors (1)Stimuli= temperature (2)Ex. Heat & cold receptors iv) Mechanoreceptors (1)Stimuli= mechanical energy (2)Ex. Pacinian corpuscle <- detects pressure changes v) Nocioreceptors (1)Stimuli= pain c) Structural classification- based on encapsulated (touch & pressure receptors) or free (hot, cold, pain receptors) dendritic ending of sensory neuron d) Law of Specific Nerve Energies- under normal or adequate stimulation, one sensory nerve fiber produces only one sensation, due to activation of brain synap pathways e) Pain i) Every tissue; stimulated by any type of stimulus at high level ii) Slight or no adaptation iii) Receptor= branched dendrite of sensory neurons f) Cutaneous sensations i) Receptor fields (1)Skin area when stimulated -> receptor fires (2)Area is inversely related to number of receptors (3)2-point touch test determines area (a)Tip of tongue= 0.06 inches (b)Back of neck= 1.4 inches 5 SPECIAL SENSES 1) Gustatory sensations a) Taste buds i) Tongue, soft palate, throat = oval bodies ii) 2 types: (1)Supporting cells- epithelium that forms a capsule with 4-20 (2)Gustatory cells (a)Has gustatory hair that protrudes through a taste pore b) Rapid adaptation c) Stim= molecules dissolve in saliva enter pore & contact hair -> depolarization -> nerve impulse -> parietal lobes d) Concept= receptor-molecular complex i) 4 Basic Tastes (1)Sweet- tip of tongue (2)Sour- (a)Sides of tongue (b)Produced by H+; all acids (c)Ex. Lemon juice (3)Salty- most of tongue (4)Bitter- back region 2) Olfactory sensations a) Receptor in epithelium of superior nasal cavity b) 2 cell types i) Supporting cells- columnar epithelial cells ii) Olfactory cells- (1)Bi-polar neurons, 6-10 dendrites= olfactory hairs (2)Hairs react to molecules in air -> stimulus depolarized -> nerve impulse -> frontal lobes (3)Olfaction is 1,000 times more sensitive than taste 3) & 4) Auditory sensations and equilibrium a) Ear divided into 3 regions: i) Outer ear (1)Collects and directs sound waves into ear (2)Divided into: (a)Pinna- ear flap (b)External auditory meatus (canal) ii) Middle ear (1)Small, air-filled, epithelial-lined cavity in temporal bone (2)Divided into 3 regions: (a)Tympanic membrane (eardrum) (i) Separates outer and middle ear (ii)Thin, fibrous connective tissue (b)Auditory tube (Eustachian tube) (i) Leads to nasopharynx in throat (ii)Function = equalize air pressure on either side of tympanic membrane (c)Auditory ossicles-3 (i) Malleus=hammer-attached to tympanic membrane (ii)Incus=anvil- attached to malleus (iii) Stapes=stirrup- attached to incus and oval window iii) Inner ear (1)AKA labyrinth (2)Series of canals (3)Divided into: (a)Bony labyrinth (b)Membranous labyrinth (i) Series of tubes and sacs containing endolymph (ii)Divided into: 1. Vestibule=oval, central portion of bony lob with 2 membrane sacs (utricle & saccule) 2. 3 Semicircular canals= anterior, posterior, lateral with semicircular ducts= membranous labyrinth 3. Cochlea a. Snail-like bone b. Divided into 3 separate channels= “Y” i. Membranous labyrinth: Scala Vestibuli & Scala tympani- contains perilymph ii. Bony Labyrinth- cochlear duct-contains endolymph iii. Scala Tympani= ends at round window- joins with middle ear b) Sound waves i) Compression & decompression of air molecules ii) Human ear: (1)20-20,000 Hz (cycles/sec) (2)Most sensitive in 1,000-4,000 Hz (3)Intensity measured in decibels (dB) (a)0-120 dB= human range (b)>120 dB -> ear damage c) Physiology of hearing i) Waves -> enter exterior auditory meatus -> hit tympanic membrane, vibrates -> malleus vibrates -> incus vibrates -> stapes vibrates -> pushes oval window in and out -> generates waves in cochlear perilymph through scala vestibule into scala tympani -> generates waves in endolymph of cochlear duct -> pushes round window into middle ear ii) Tiny hairs in cochlear duct move against a tectoral membrane; generates a nerve impulse (mechanism unknown). Impulses pass to primary auditory area of temporal lobe iii) Hair + membrane -> Organ of Corti = hearing receptor d) Physiology of equilibrium – 2 types i) Static Equilibrium (1)Orientation of head to ground (2)Regions = macula (a)Small, flat region of receptors on utricle & saccule (b)Macula in saccule= vertical equilibrium (c)Macula in utricle = horizontal equilibrium (3)Static equilibrium information monitored by cerebellum -> sends impulses regulates motor activities to cerebrum; skeletal muscles adjust to maintain static equilibrium ii) Dynamic Equilibrium (1)Semicircular canals -> 3 right angles; detects imbalance in 3 planes e) Vision i) Eyes are designed to see visible light (1)400-700 nm ii) Eye Structure (1)Diameter = ~ 2.5cm (roughly one inch) (2)Only 1/6 exposed (3)Divided into 3 regions (a)Fibrous tunic- “outer coat”; divided into: (i) Sclera 1. White of eye= fibrous tissue 2. Shape and protects inner structure (ii)Cornea 1. Nonvascular, nervous, transparent 2. Fibrous coat covering the Iris (b)Vascular tunic- “middle region”; divided into: (i) Choroid 1. Thin, dark brown membrane 2. Lines most of sclera 3. Contains number of blood vessels & pigments, absorbs light, nourishes retina (ii)Ciliary body 1. Thickest portion of tunic 2. Divided into: a. Ciliary processes- secretes aqueous humor b. Ciliary muscle- shapes lens for near or far vision 3. Iris a. Circular & radial smooth muscle in a donut-shaped structure b. Hole = pupil c. Primary function= regulates amount of light entering eyeball d. Bright light -> circular muscles contract, decrease pupil size e. Dim light -> radial muscles contract, increase pupil size (iii) Nervous tunic 1. AKA retina 2. Primary function- image formation -Photoreceptor neurons= rods and cones -> depolarization a. Rods- allow for shape and movement determination b. Cones- color vision and sharpness, 3 different cone types: red, green, blue c. Color Blindness i. Missing one or more types of cones ii. X-linked recessive 9% males vs. 1% females 3. Color vision= trichromatic theory 4. Lens a. Behind pupil and iris b. Made of numerous protein fiber layers c. Normally transparent d. Decrease in transparency= cataracts 5. Eye interior divided into: a. Anterior Cavity i. Filled with aqueous humor ii. Generates intraocular pressure iii. Poor drainage increases pressure= glaucoma (may damage retina -> blindness) b. Posterior Cavity i. Between lens and retina ii. Contains vitreous humor iii. “jelly-like iv. Prevents the eyeball from collapsing iii) Physiology of Vision (a)Light-> cornea -> aqueous humor -> pupil -> lens -> vitreous humor -> rods & cones of retina > optic nerve -> occipital lobes (b)Retinal Image (i) Inverted (ii)Brain learns early in life to coordinate images with exact locations Eye Disorders o 1) Conjunctivitis “pink eye” Most common type of inflammation Caused by bacteria and irritants o 2) Myopia Nearsighted Rays focus before retina (concave lens) o Hyperopia Farsighted Rays focus behind retina (convex lens) STUDY ENDOCRINE PACKET. Endocrine and Nervous System- primary homeostasis control mechanism Endocrine- slower and longer lasting than nervous because hormone release is slower than electricity Endocrine and nervous system- coordinated, interlocking supersystem 1. Endocrine a. Controls 4 areas of homeostasis i. Regulates internal environment- chemical composition & volume ii. Copes with emergencies- fight or flight iii. Regulates growth and development iv. Regulates reproduction- gamete formation, fertilization, embryo and newborn nourishment b. Glands i. Endocrine glands 1. Ductless 2. Secrete hormones into extracellular region (blood) ii. Exocrine glands 1. Ducts 2. Carry secretion into cavities or openings 3. Ex. Salivary glands iii. Mixed glands 1. Both endo and exo 2. Ex. Pancreas c. Hormones i. Biologically active molecules released from endocrine glands into blood to regulate homeostasis by causing metabolic changes ii. Two hormone types 1. Water soluble a. Amino acids (AKA amines), polypeptides, glycoproteins 2. Lipid soluble a. Steroid and thyroid hormone 3. Hormone mechanism of action- 3 aspects a. Hormone binds to target cells by specific receptor proteins i. High affinity- tight ii. Low capacity- #’s b. Hormone-receptor complex-> metabolize difference in target cells c. Rapid removal and or chemical inactivation of complex 2. Mechanism of steroid and thyroid hormonal action a. General i. Both classes of hormones are non-polar, lipid soluble ii. Carried to target cells by plasm carrier molecule iii. After releasing from carrier molecules, the hormone moves through the cell membrane -> cytoplasm -> nucleus iv. Steroid hormones bind nuclear receptor v. Receptor- hormone complex attaches to acceptor sites on chromatin (chromatin= DNA + histone protein) vi. By binding genes (=regions of DNA that -> protein) are turned on [DNA-> pre mRNA -> mRNA -> protein synthesis] vii. Therefore, steroid hormones affect target cells by stimulating transcription (RNA Synthesis) and translation (protein synthesis) b. Thyroxine i. Primary hormone secreted from thyroid gland (AKA T4- tertaiodothyronine) ii. Travels in blood attaches to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) iii. Free T4 diffuses through cell membrane and is cleaved to T3 (Triiodothyronine) in cytoplasm iv. T3 receptor proteins move T3 to nucleus v. T3 binds to nuclear receptor proteins -> binds to DNA vi. DNA-> pre mRNA -> mRNA -> protein synthesis c. Mechanism of amine, polypeptide & glycoprotein action (AKA 2 nd messenger theory) i. General 1. Water soluble hormone cant pass through target cell membrane, binds to cell membrane receptors 2. Causes 1 or 2 pathways to st activated 3. Pathway #1- Hormone- 1 messenger a. Cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP= 2 ndmessenger i. Increases in cytoplasm ii. Hormone-receptor binding activates adenylate cyclase in membrane to convert ATP -> cAMP + Pi or guanosine cyclase to convert GTP -> cGMP + Pi b. cAMP or cGMP- activates protein kinases by removing an inhibitory subunit c. Kinases phosphorylate different enzymes which activates or inhibits them; alters cell’s metabolism d. Phosphodiesterase’s i. Inactivates cGMP or cAMP, stop hormone action ii. Caffeine And theophylline inhibit phosphodiesterase’s; raises cGMP and nd cAMP levels in cells ii. 2 messengers (cAMP, cGMP, Ca++) 1. Can interact with each other, therefore very complex at molecular level 2. Ex. Ying-yang hypothesis- rise in cAMP-> fall in cGMP and vice-versa 1) Pituitary Gland a) General Information i) Master gland ii) Releases 9 hormones iii) Pea-shaped iv) Diameter= 0.5 inches v) Attached to hypothalamus by infundibulum (Stalk of tissue at base of brain) b) Divisions i) Adenohypophysis- anterior lobe= 75% of total weight (1)Releases 7 hormones which are regulated by releasing or inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus; endocrine and nervous systems work together (2)Releasing and inhibiting hormones delivered to anterior pituitary via several superior hypophyseal arteries -> a portal system = hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system (3)Except for growth hormone (GH), melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), and prolactin (PRL), all anterior pituitary hormones are tropic hormones- stimulating other endocrines glands to produces hormones (4)The hormones (a)GH- Growth Hormone (i) AKA somatotropin (soma-body) (ii)Stimulates bone and skeletal muscle growth primarily by increasing protein synthesis (iii) Also, increasing fat catabolism and decreasing carbo catabolism; blood glucose levels rises- hyperglycemia (iv) GH Releasing Hormone (GHRH) and GH Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH) from hypothalamus regulates release of GH 1. Giantism- over-secretion of GH during childhood 2. Acromegaly- over-secretion of GH during adulthood (b)Thyroid-Stimulation Hormone (TSH) (i) AKA Thyrotropin (ii)Stimulates thyroid gland- release thyroxine (AKA T4) (iii) Thryotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH) regulates TSH release (c)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) (i) AKA corticotrophin (ii)Stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and release gluco- corticoids (iii) Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) regulates ACTH release (d)Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (i) Stimulates growth and release of ovarian follicles and production of sperm (ii)FSH also stimulates ovaries to secrete estrogen (iii) Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) regulates FSH release (e)Luteinizing Hormone (LH) (i) With estrogen-> egg release from ovary and prepares uterus for egg implantation (ii)LH in male -> release of testosterone (iii) GnRH regulates LH release (f) Prolactin (PRL) (i) With LH-> oxytocin initiates and maintains mile flow in females (ii)Prolactin RH (PRH) and Prolactin IH (PIH) regulates PRL release, as does infant feeding (g)Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) (i) Increase skin pigmentation (ii)Not well understood (iii) Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone RH (MRH) and Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Inhib H (MIH) regulates MSH release 2) Neurohypophysis- posterior lobe- 25% of total weight a) Not an endocrine gland since it only stores and doesn’t synthesize hormones b) Neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus synthesize 2 hormones which are carried in hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract to posterior pituitary i) Oxytocin (1)Synthesized by paraventricular nucleus cells (2)Stimulates uterine contraction and milk ejection (3)Increase in concentration just before birth (4)No known function in males ii) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) (1)AKA vasopressin (2)Synthesized by supra optic nucleus cells (3)Stimulates water retention in kidney; decrease urine volume by 10Xs, also increases BP by constricting arterioles (4)Pain, stress, nicotine, morphine – stimulates ADH release; low urine output (5)Alcohol inhibits ADH release; high urine output -> dehydration iii) Control of hormone secretions: negative feedback mechanism- information about hormone level or its effect is fed back to the gland, which responds accordingly (1)Target glands hormones inhibit: (a)The secretion of releasing hormone from hypothalamus (b)The anterior pituitary response to releasing hormone- short feedback loop (anterior pituitary hormone inhibits secretion of releasing hormone from hypothalamus) (2)OT is exception- uses positive feedback loop 3) Adrenal glands a) General Information i) 2 Adrenal glands ii) Superior to each kidney iii) Divided into 2 structural and functional units: cortex & medulla (1)Adrenal cortex (a)Outer region (b)Divided into 3 areas (i) Zona glomerulosa 1. Secretes mineralcorticoids 2. Regulates Na+ and K+ balance= aldosterone primarily (ii)Zona fasiculata 1. Secretes glucocorticoids 2. Regulates carbo metabolism= primarily cortisol (AKA hydrocortisone) also anti-inflammatory compounds (iii) Zona reticularis 1. Secretes sex steroids 2. Estrogen in females and androgens in males (c)ACTH from anterior pituitary with increase secretion of hormones from all 3 zones but primarily the glucocorticoids (2)Adrenal medulla (a)Chromaffin cells synthesize epinephrine (AKA Adrenaline), norepinephrine (AKA noradrenaline) at 4:1 ratio -> “Fight of flight response” (b)Mimic effects of sympathetic nervous system; increase BP and heart rate; increase BMR and respiration rate, decreases digestion (c)Hormonal effects last 10 times longer than sympathetic NS effects (d)Epinephrine more potent than norephinephrine 4) Thyroid Gland a) General Information i) Left and right lobes joined by isthmus ii) Located below larynx iii) Simple cuboid epithelial cells – “Principal cells” from thyroid follicles= hollow sacs that contain colloid= protein-rich fluid b) Production and action of thyroid hormone i) Normally, principal cells have 40 times [iodide] ions vs blood; active transport occurs (under max activity, [iodide] = 300X vs blood) ii) Iodide (I-) ions are secreted into colloid and oxidized to iodine iii) Iodine is attached to tyrosine on the polypeptide thyroglobulin st (1)1 ndiodine-> monoiodotyrosine (MIT) (2)2 : iodine-> diiodotyrosine (DIT) iv) MIT + DIT combine -> T3 or T4 } active hormones v) TSH stimulates principal cells to uptake colloid and free T3 or T4 from thyroglobulin vi) Free T3 or T4 released into B.S. is bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) vii) Thyroxine functions (1)Raises BMR- by increasing carbo and lipid catabolism; also raises rate of protein synthesis (2)Raises growth and development- with GH, especially nervous tissue (3)Raises activity of nervous system c) Clinical applications i) Cretinism (1)Hypothyroidism during youth -> dwarfism and mental retardation -> cretin = low BMR; slow (2)Admin T4 +T3= solves problem ii) Myxedema (1)Hypothyroidism as adult (2)Low BMR, lack of mental alertness (3)8X more in females than males (4)Admin T4+T3 iii) Exophthalmic goiter (1)Hyperthyroidism (2)Enlarged goiter and “bug eyes” (3)Exophthalmos and high BMR -> wt loss, nervous, high body temp (4)AKA Graves Disease- antibodies mimic TSH; thyroid enlarges (5)Surgery or drugs that suppress T4 +T3 synthesis (6)More in females than in males iv) Endemic Goiter (1)Enlarged thyroid due to lack of iodine in diet (2)Therefore should use iodized salt v) Thyroid cancer (1)Slow-growing, regional (2)Treatment: surgery + radioactive iodine (131 I)= transported to metastasized thyroid cells -> kills by radiation damage to DNA (3)Supply T3+ T4 d) Parafollicular cells in thyroid secrete calcitonin (CT)= causes drop in Ca++ and phosphate blood levels by inhibiting bone breakdown and stimulates bone absorption of Ca++ and Phosphate 5) Parathyroid glands a) General Information i) 4 parathyroid glands ii) 2 each on right and left thyroid lobes b) Action i) Chief cells synthesize parathyroid hormone (PTH) -> rise in blood Ca++ and phosphate levels ii) Stimulates vitamin D formation iii) Raises bone breakdown iv) Increase Ca++ absorbed from digestive system 6) Pancreas a) General Information i) 6 inches and fish-shaped ii) Mixed gland b) Endo portion= islets of Langerhans = divided into: i) Alpha cells (25%) (1)Secrete glucagon due to drop in blood glucose (2)Glucagon- increases glycogenolysys (a)Glycogen -> glucose (b)Increase gluconeogenesis in liver (3)Glucose is then released into blood, which raises blood glucose and shuts down loop (4)Glucagon- used during “fasting” to maintain constant blood sugar ii) Beta cells (60%) (1)Secretes insulin due to rise in blood glucose (2)Insulin lowers blood glucose by: (a)Moving blood glucose into skeletal muscle + liver (b)Increases conversion of glucose -> glycogen = glycogenesis (c)Increases conversion of glucose -> fatty acids = lipogenesis (3)Insulin used after a meal to maintain constant blood sugar (4)Diabetes Mellitus “Sweet Flow” (a)10%- Type 1- Juvenile Onset (i) Beta cells destroyed- lowers insulin, raises B.S. (ii)Increases Polyuria= increase urine (iii) Increase polydipsia= increase thirst (iv) Increase lipid metabolism -> ketone bodies (by product) (b)90% Type 2- Maturity Onset (i) Decrease in receptors (ii)Increase weight, poor diet, lack of exercise (c)Both types- Increase micro-vascular damage, increase neuropathy 7) Pineal Gland a) Brain-hormone= melatonin b) Secretes highest at 1-5 years old c) Max. secretion at night d) May regulate circadian rhythm; not well understood 8) Thymus gland a) Large during puberty, shrink afterwards b) Secretes hormones that affect T cells = important in immunity 9) GI Tract a) Stomach and small intenstine b) Secrete hormones that affects pancreas, gall bladder, and GI Tract 10) Gonads and Placenta a) Testes i) Secretes testosterone-> development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics ii) Inhibin also secreted – hormone that inhibits FSH iii) Male sex hormones- androgens iv) Leydig cells- secrete testosterone b) Ovaries i) Secretes estrogen and progesterone ii) Placenta (1)Secretes estrogen and progesterone (2)Secrete human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)<- pregnancy test
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