Week 1 notes. Aug 25
Week 1 notes. Aug 25 PSYC 460
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca Sehnert on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 460 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Bob Belli in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Memory in Psychology at University of Nebraska Lincoln.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Remembering the Commonplace We encounter pennies everyday! Penny: List of correct details ▯ Front – Lincoln facing right (we see right side of face) – Date – In God We Trust – Liberty ▯ Back – United States of America – ONE CENT – E Pluribus Unum – Lincoln Memorial Building Memory for the Commonplace – Was drawing a penny difficult? – If difficult, why? – Were there some details that were remembered correctly, others that were not? – What memory processes are involved that make the task ▯Difficult or not ▯Accurate or not – People use pennies everyday ▯If you cannot draw a penny, how do you remember enough to use it? – Are there other common objects whose details you do not remember 1 Memory Phases ▯ Encoding – the acquisition of information ▯ Retention – holding information in memory over time ▯ Retrieval – remembering the past ▯ How do these phases impact on being able to remember the details of a penny? ▯ How much memory is needed to be able to use a penny? Suppose I asked you to select one instead of draw one Types of retrieval tasks ▯ Free recall – report everything you can about the past – Essay test ▯ Cued recall – given some information or cue to base your retrieval – Short answer test ▯ Recognition – selection from a list of items – Multiple-choice test – Which distracters are used impacts on ▯Ease/difficulty ▯What can be learned learned about how much memory exists ▯People usually do best on recognition test 2 A schema for common cents ▯ Participants were asked to draw a U.S. penny, nickel, dime, and quarter ▯ Researchers did a detailed analysis of the most common details that were drawn for each coin ▯ They then drew modal coins based on the most common details recalled in the drawings Results: Are details not encoded at all? What type of retrieval test? ▯ In one study, Nickerson asked Ps to fill out one of these two columns on what was on a penny. 3 Confidence-accuracy Confidence-Accuracy for individual items Abstraction of Common Features ▯ Details of commonplace items are often not encoded ▯ What is encoded are only those features that make items identifiable and usable – their functions ▯ Nevertheless, with repetition, abstraction of details common to items of the same category (such as coins) does occur 4 Abstraction of what typically occurs ▯ Leads to memory structures known as schemas ▯ A schema is an organized knowledge structure that reflects an individual’s knowledge, experience, and expectations about some aspect of the world. –Schemas are used both at comprehension (encoding) and during remembering I will show you some pictures ▯ I just want you to look at them!! Pair of eyeglasses 5 The number “7” Broom Types of schemas ▯ Schema – general term for a stored framework of any body of knowledge ▯ Script – schema for a type of event (going to a restaurant) ▯ Schemas and scripts consist of –Slots or frames that can assume values, –Most typical values are default values 6 House schema and restaurant script ▯ House ▯ Restaurant – Superset: building – Entering – Material: wood, brick ▯ Receptionist asks party size – Contains: rooms ▯ customer(s) to sitts – Function: human dwelling – Shape: rectilinear – Ordering ▯ Customer looks at menu – Size: 500-5000 sq ft ▯ Decides on food – Location: on ground ▯ C orders food to waitress Frames or slots contain the details tha– Eating ▯ W brings food to C pertain to any schema or script ▯ C eats food Default values are those details that willExiting ▯ W gives C bill be activated even if not presented ▯ C leaves credit card on table ▯ W returns with receipt ▯ C leaves tip on receipt ▯ C leaves For US coins ▯ What would be the frames? ▯ What would be the default values? “John went to a restaurant. He asked for a steak. He paid and left” ▯ Sentence is comprehensible through invoking a restaurant script – Can infer default values ▯ John read a menu ▯ Was served by waitress ▯ He ate ▯ Left a tip ▯ Etc. ▯ If asked to remember sentences about event, may remember: – “John read a menu, and then placed his order with the waitress.” 7 Using a schemas and details ▯ During remembering – Details that are not present in the experience will become “inferred” as default values ▯ Remembering default values may be considered as false memories ▯ False memories of what pennies, and US coins, look like – Inferring a schema of common cents and their default values Now I would like you to draw what I showed you earlier in class ▯ Pair of eyeglasses ▯ The number 7 ▯ Broom How did you do? 8 Summary ▯ Remembering a penny and remembering grades involves – The accurate remembering of some details ▯ A year appears on a penny – Abstracting what typically occurs ▯ Lincoln facing left when he actually faces right (a false memory) ▯ So, memory consists of both – Details (verbatim or episodic memory) – Abstractions or schemas (gist, semantic, or generic memory) 9
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