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HSCI 3000 - Introduction to Anatomy Terms, Week 1

by: Nancy Kanarski

HSCI 3000 - Introduction to Anatomy Terms, Week 1 HSCI

Marketplace > East Tennessee State University > HSCI > HSCI 3000 Introduction to Anatomy Terms Week 1
Nancy Kanarski
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These are the terms that were covered in the notes during our first week. I will fill in and update the missing terms as we review them.
Human Anatomy
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nancy Kanarski on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSCI at East Tennessee State University taught by Forsman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 57 views.


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Date Created: 08/24/16
Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical Terminology 1. Anatomical position 2. Planes of the body Midsagittal Sagittal Coronal Transverse Oblique 3. Superior (rostral?) 4. Inferior (caudal?) 5. Anterior (ventral?) 6. Posterior (dorsal?) 7. Medial 8. Lateral 9. Internal (deep/profundus?) 10. External (superficial?) 11. Proximal 12. Distal 13. Visceral 14. Parietal Body Cavities 1. Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial Cavity Vertebral Cavity 2. Ventral Body Cavity Thoracic Cavity Pleural Cavities Mediastinum Pericardial Cavity Superior Mediastinum Inferior Mediastinum Anterior Mediastinum Posterior Mediastinum Abdominopelvic Cavity Abdominal Cavity Pelvic Cavity Body Position and Movements 1. Prone 2. Pronation 3. Supine 4. Supination 5. Flexion 6. Extension 7. Abduction 8. Adduction 9. Circumduction 10. Inversion 11. Eversion 12. Medial Rotation 13. Lateral Rotation 14. Rotation Cytology – the study of cells Cellular Diversity – form follows function Cell structure and cellular components 1. Plasma Membrane 2. Cytoplasm 3. Mitochondrion 4. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) 5. Ribosomes 6. Golgi 7. Lysosomes 8. Peroxisomes 9. Other structures: centrioles, fibrils, microtubules, cilia, flagella 10. Nucleus Cell Cycle Interphase G1 S G2 Mitotic Phase Mitosis Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis Histology: the study of tissues There are generally considered to be 4 types of tissue in the body. Epithelial tissue Connective tissue Muscle tissue Nervous tissue Epithelial Tissue Classification of epithelia Simple vs. Stratified Squamous vs. Cuboidal vs. Columnar Types of epithelia Simple Simple Squamous Simple Cuboidal Simple Columnar Stratified Stratified Squamous Keratinized Non-keratinized Stratified Cuboidal Pseudostratified Columnar (ciliated?) Transitional Glandular Epithelium Exocrine glands Endocrine glands Methods of secretion Merocrine Apocrine Holocrine A brief overview of the histology of bone Bones make up the skeletal system. Cellular structure of bone. Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Types of bones (structurally) Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones Types of bones (histologically) Primary Bone Secondary Bone Osteon (Haversion system) Central (Haversion) Canal Perforating (Volkmann’s) Canal Canaliculi Osteocytes Fibroblasts (collagen) Fracture Repair Hematoma Bony Callus Remodeling Histology of Muscle Muscle Function 1. Contraction for locomotion and skeletal movement 2. Contraction for propulsion 3. Contraction for pressure regulation Classification of muscles 1. Morphological Striated Non-striated (smooth) 2. Functional Voluntary Involuntary Types of Muscle 1. Skeletal – striated, voluntary 2. Cardiac – smooth, involuntary 3. Smooth – non-striated, involuntary Muscle terminology 1. Whole muscle – perimysium 2. Muscle fascicle - epimysium 3. Myofiber (muscle cell) - endomysium 4. Sarcolemma – plasma membrane 5. Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm 6. Sarcoplasmic reticulum – endoplasmic reticulum 7. T tubule – transverse tubule 8. Terminal Cisternae 9. Triad 10. Diad 11. Sarcosome 12. Sarcomere Histology of the nervous system Neurons (nerve cells) are the basic and functional unit of the nervous system. There are approximately 10 billion neurons in the human body. Function of neurons. 1. Produce neurotransmitters 2. Transmit impulses Afferent – information into the central nervous system (CNS) Efferent – information out from the central nervous system (CNS) Types of Neurons There are generally considered to be three types of neurons which are classified by their number of cellular processes. 1. Multipolar – several dendrites and one axon. An example of this is a motor neuron (ventral horn cell) 2. Bipolar – have single processes at each end. This type of neuron is relatively rare. They are found in acustic and vestibular nuclei associated with CN VIII, they act as olfactory receptors in CN I and they are also found in the retina. 3. Pseudounipolar (unipolar) – have a single process that divides into two. These types of neurons make up the somatosensory neurons. Parts of a neuron All neurons have 3 parts 1. Cell body (perikaryon or soma) – the main nutritional portion of the cell. Single central nucleus Usually a prominent nucleolus Nissl Bodies – dense accumulations of RER and Polyribosomes Golgi Mitochondria Tubules and filaments 2. Dendrite(s) – essentially antennae of the neuron. Contents much the same as the soma Dendritic spines (Gemules) 3. An Axon – carrying information away from the cell body/soma No Nissl Bodies Axolemma Axoplasm Axon Hillock Neruofilaments and neurotubules Membrane bound vesicles Axoplasmic flow Neurotransmitter Retrograde flow Synapses 1. Functional Classification Electrical synapses – found a gap junctions Chemical synapses – neurotransmitter 2. Structural Classification Axodendritic Axosomatic Axoaxonic Dendrodendritic Neuroglial cells – support cells for neurons 1. Neurolemmocytes (Schwann Cells) 2. Oligodendrocytes 3. Microglia 4. Astrocytes 5. Ependymal Cells 6. Satellite Cells Peripheral Nerve Terminology 1. Whole Nerve – Epineurium 2. Nerve Fascicle – Perineurium 3. Axon Myelin (?) External (Basil) Lamina Endoneurium Fibroblast


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