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SO 1003 Lecture 2 notes

by: Cheyenne S.

SO 1003 Lecture 2 notes SO 1003

Marketplace > Mississippi State University > SO 1003 > SO 1003 Lecture 2 notes
Cheyenne S.
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About this Document

A discussion of different research methods and the elements within research. Defines good research and explores different ways of gathering data.
Intro to Sociology
Mariathuy Trinh
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology, research methods, sociology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cheyenne S. on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Mariathuy Trinh in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.


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Date Created: 08/24/16
SO 1003 Lecture 2 Methods I. Research methods A. ways to examine or establish relationships between social elements B. example: scientific method C. types 1. quantitative a) analyzes numbers via surveys and experiments 2. qualitative a) natural settings with in-depth descriptions II. Elements of Research: Variables and Hypothesis A. independent variable: causes another factor or dependent variable to change B. dependent variable: outcome that the researcher is trying to explain C. hypothesis: the relationship between two variables 1. null hypothesis—no relationship 2. alternative hypothesis—new hypothesis that differs from the original III. Deductive vs Inductive A. deductive 1. theory -> hypothesis -> experiments -> analyze -> confirm/reject/modify B. inductive 1. observe -> analyze -> theory IV. Causality vs Correlation A. one of two conclusions formed from observations B. causality: variable that causes factor/another variable to change 1. ex: education affects the job you have C. correlation: two variables are related 1. ex: education affects income V. Defining Good Research A. generalized—reaching an audience; findings apply to others B. high reliability—results will be accurate if repeated by others C. high validity—research measures expectations VI. Types of Data Collection/Research Methods A. can use more than one at the same time B. participant observation 1. researcher involved in their own experiment C. non-participant observation 1. researcher only present during experiment taking place
 2. interviews 3. asking for information from other sources 4. conversations with detail D. comparative research 1. analyzing cultures, countries, context E. experimentation 1. manipulate (independent) variable examines effect on other (dependent) variable(s) F. context analysis 1. examine text for patterns 2. no limit to the type of text used a) essays b) communication (emails) G. historical methods 1. study the past to compare to the present VII. Ethics of Social Research A. ethics—codified standards for those conducting studies B. protects participants in emotional, physical or psychological harm C. consent and voluntary participation is mandatory D. form of ethics: public sociology 1. teach to help a community E. form of study that turned unethical 1. Stanford prison experiment 2. Milgram experiment


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