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Hist 101-02, Week 1, Day 2

by: Tatyona Thompson

Hist 101-02, Week 1, Day 2 Hist 101-02

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Tatyona Thompson

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Within these notes, the Paleolithic and Neolithic Era's were broken down and discussed as well as Mesopotamia in the early ages.
Foundations of European Civilizations I
Adam Powley
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyona Thompson on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101-02 at a university taught by Adam Powley in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.

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Date Created: 08/24/16
Foundations of European Civilization Mr. A. Powley: Hist 101­ 02 (Mon/Wed) 4:00­5:15 Edwards 257 First Civilizations Human Evolution – Beginning of the Paleolithic Age  200,000­100,000 years ago the Homo Sapiens Sapiens (wise­thinking human) appeared  in East Africa.  Advantages included ability to create stone tools and fire. Also subtler communications  This “Old Stone Age” lasts until about 10,000 BCE 2 Theories On Spread of Humanity  The out of Africa Hypothesis Out of Africa Hypothesis  By 10,000 BCE humans covered the entire planet  The theory corresponds to the fossil record (mostly) 2 The Toba Event Hypothesis  DNA studies suggest we should have much greater genetic diversity  Some argue of a near mass extinction event (as few as 5000 people)  Around 7000BCE supervolcano at Lake Toba exploded triggered mini­ice age (about  1000 years)  Theory for the lack of genetic diversity Homo Sapiens Sapiens  Only hominid able to adapt to the new environments o Ability to use tools to hunt o Build shelter o Create fire o Create ships and self defense  Survived as hunter gatherers The Neolithic Revolution (10000BCE­3000BCE)  People gradually learned agriculture o Shift from hunter gatherer to farming  o Created stone craft tools  1  appeared in the “Fertile Crescent:  o Today’s southern Iraq  Domestication of animals allowed  Formed communities of various clans (only a few hundred) Foundations of European Civilization Mr. A. Powley: Hist 101­ 02 (Mon/Wed) 4:00­5:15 Edwards 257 Agriculture  Natural and selective breeding made hardier plants  Still subjective to climate issues  Larger population possible, but limited by the amount of land in cultivation Domestication   Domestications – animals for food and materials kept o Needed to be non­aggressive, herd, quick to mature o Greater security in food o Known as “Pastoralists” Problems in Agriculture Societies  Unbalanced grain diets  Susceptible to new diseases  Especially herb­based ones  Large surplus could be targeted for raids  Deforestation and overgrazing a soil erosion  Irrigation could lead to salt buildups and reduced fertility   Explained well in Jared diamonds guns, germs and steel Early Example – “Catalhuyuk”  Settled around 7500BCE o 6000 people lived at peak o No temples, no royal courts o Suggests no social strata or politics  o Maybe ancestor worship  Material culture included art o Concerned with death, reproduction, and survival Europeans  Agriculture didn’t appear for 1000 years after Fertile Crescent o Most difficult soil, defense woodlands o 1  sites around 2500 BCE in Balkans o Known for Megaliths like Stonehenge  Suggested a high degree of social organization, skilled labor and  engineering What is Civilization ? “A sense that a society has advanced beyond basic survival .” ­Vastly different perspectives emerged early in Mesopotamia and Egypt Foundations of European Civilization Mr. A. Powley: Hist 101­ 02 (Mon/Wed) 4:00­5:15 Edwards 257  Steady food source (agriculture, water)  Permanent structures (cities, large population, specialization of jobs)  Government (defense)  Written language, language  Religion  Social structure  Culture (art, music, fashion)  Traditions, morals and values  Technology   Trade  Family The First Civilizations Emerged  In modern day Southern Iraq  3000 BCE known as Sumer  The plains region sometimes called Mesopotamia or the Fertile Crescent  Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers An Unlikely Beginning   Geographic Disadvantages 1. Sandy soil 2. Hot 3. Little rain 4. Little stone 5. Little metal ore 6. Little timber 7. Exposed to invasion Sumer  Mesopotamia (between the rivers)  Tigris and Euphrates access to the Persian Gulf   Yet no maritime trade agriculture  Agriculture o Made possible by flooding of the rivers o Complex system of levees, reservoirs and irrigation canals The Ubaids  The first identifiable group of settlers in the region  Farming as early as 7000 BCE o Identified through archaeological remains Foundations of European Civilization Mr. A. Powley: Hist 101­ 02 (Mon/Wed) 4:00­5:15 Edwards 257 o Irrigation tunnels stones date back to 5900 BCE  There are other older sites but Sumer has the only evidence of continuous settlement  Spread of Agriculture  From the fertile crescent, spread to east Asia Early Agriculture  Depended on Collective Labor  Some evidence of gender roles o Men: hunter­gathered ruled women: chief agriculturalists  Villages appeared  The Emergence of the Bronze Age (4000­15000BCE)  7000 BCE – small bits of copper hammered into shapes with stones  5000 BCE – smelting copper ore to purify and cast molds  4000 BCE – mixed copper and tin to produce bronze  Stronger, used in weapons and farm tools, spread quickly throughout the East Early Mesopotamian Trade  Hard grain, needed stone and metal  Developed trading relations o Ore from the settlement of upper Tigris and west into Palestine o Grain traveled well in arid climate o Stone and ore floated down the Tigris river  Necessitated the development of WRITING o Later evolved into Cuneiform o Expanded beyond record keeping  Sumerians – Domestic Society  Eridu and Ur first cities (5500 BCE)  Up to 50000 inhabitants Sumerian Government  Economic Specializations developed quickly   1  cities were governed by the clan elders in a primitive city council  Proved unable to defend the cities against invaders and the capricious Gods  Dual Authorities developed o Kings  o Priests Foundations of European Civilization Mr. A. Powley: Hist 101­ 02 (Mon/Wed) 4:00­5:15 Edwards 257 Kings and Priests  Secular and spiritual (ecclesiastics) authority often appeared together in western societies  Sometimes 2 offices in contests (think of Kings fighting against the pope)  Sometimes combined into a single office (think of the Islamic caliphate)  In Sumer, the Lugal was “KING”, a military commander whom everyone obeyed The Great Flood (mythical)  The gods sent a flood that covered the earth and nearly killed all mankind  A model for the biblical floods of Noah  Demonstrates the fear of floods in the exposed plains of the fertile crescent The Akkadians­ Sargon I (Emperor?)  Cruelty as a matter of policy 


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