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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaytlyn Notetaker on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
French Absolutism I. Henry IV A. Ended wars B. Tax collection i. Bourbon ii. Sully One trend was absolutism and the other trend is constitutional/limited monarch which we will talk about later. French was the poster child for absolutism. Absolutism is having complete control and power by the monarch (on person). So the prerogatives and power to wage war, tax and administer justice is all wielded by one person and nothing else can really keep this power in check. This took time to develop; before this, monarchs were pretty weak in power. This developed over 3 reigns in France and isn’t fully formed until the last of the 4 reigns which is Louis XIIII (14). The first was the first of the Bourbon monarchs Henry IV or Henry of Navarre who was protestant in a catholic state. There were conflicts and wars in France which he ended and restored order which starts to build a more powerful state and he ended the wars by converting to Catholicism after 3.5 years and treaty of knot (settlement for the Protestants that gave them religious toleration, not freedom). Sully was his finance minister and the one who inherited a mess; the monarchy was in debt because Henry spent a lot on stopping the wars. Sully tried to balance the budget by putting the King on an allowance and other things as well as tax collection which was a nightmare here. There was no uniform tax system in this realm of 30+ provinces and many had their own tax systems of collecting and assessing them and the southern provinces didn’t pay all their taxes while the north paid more. The south opposed reforms fiercely so his plan was to have a uniform system throughout France. The government has to be the same across the realm for absolutism with the monarch in the middle. He did this one province at a time to avoid war and he did this in the two where he was very popular and introduced tax collecting officials to be in line with northern France and it works very easily. In 1610 the king was riding through Paris in an open carriage where an individual leapt on and stabbed him to death; he was a mentally unstable Huguenot. This was a setback because his son and heir Louis XIII was 9 years old. Regency is another relative who riules in the name of someone who is a minor. His wife, Marie de Medici (Italian banking family) rules for heer son which was a setback in absolutism. She doesn’t know how to manage France, she squanders the money that Sully worked so hard on successfully fixing; she squandered it because things got restless under her and people were revolting to be bribed and paid off to be nice again. This is a disaster and she even recalled the tax collectors in the provinces. II. Louis XIII A. Regency of Marie de Medici B. Protestants C. Indentants i. Rich When Louis got old enough, he and his mother part in ways and he casts off his mother’s control and begins to rely more and more on Cardinal Richelieu. They work together to centralize and grow the power of the state by continuing tax collection and more importantly they address the issue of Protestantism. This is an issue again because they were nervous and started rebelling against the state again because all of Marie’s policies and actions were very pro Catholic which made the protestants freak out and they became more militant and violent. Louis and his cardinal laid waste to the protestant in the province of La Rochelle which was in the west coast and the capital of Protestants. They sent in an army and killed and sieged the city and changed the Edict of Knot. They changes that they could defend themselves so they’re once and for all left militarily harmless. The other thing they did was introducing the intendants who were new bureaucrats to each province. They were sent out and paid by Richelieu to spy and snoop in each province so if people are plotting rebellions, they will know ahead of time; they began to be known as the 30 tyrants in france. By the end of this reign, france is moving fast towards absolutism and it was halted. A 5 year old was left king who was Louis XIV. III. Louis XIV A. Fronde B. Personal rule C. Reforms 1. Versailles 2. Military 3. Revocation of Edict of Nantes i. Anne of Austria ii. Mazarin Anne of Austria is the mother and his regent. She was a Spanish Habsburg. Her right hand man was another catholic cardinal Mazarin who ran the show as the young king grew up and it wasn’t long before the Fronde happened which was a civil war and a revolt against absolutism. It is started by nobility of France who is trying to get money again and was supported by peasants for the tax kept increasing. This lasted 5 years and was ended by Mazarin and the government. This did 2 things: 1. Things are crazy and scares French people into submission and makes them accept this government and the alternative to civil war is a strong central government, 2. This shapes perceptions of Louis XIV and he said that the Fronde had an impact on his as a teen and as asleep in the palace a mob storms into his bedroom to see if he was still there; he said never again will anything like a Fronde happen again. To finish and be absolute, he did personal rule. Louis waited until Mazarin dies to have ministers of war, finance, etc. and there will not be a single guy calling the shots for he will be the one calling the shots and he will be involved in everything. He was advised by ministers and had them in charge of different areas of government but he made all decisions and had all control. He did a series of reforms too. First, he builds the palace of Versailles as a control mechanism; this was huge and could house 10,000 people, takes 3 decades to construct and he uses this as a cage and he said to nobility if they want anything from me (Louis) this have to live in the palace with he and his family or at least live here part of the year. He separated the higher nobility and got them here and this was a lot of people to manage and control so he creates a life stock in Versailles or a culture in Versailles that gives him control. Example: everything is neatly prescribed like a system of manners and how you conduct yourself and if you mess up, you will be talked about and disgraced and all the goodies and rewards will be given elsewhere; a lot of the day was spent at events or visiting other nobles but everything you did involve decisions on conducting yourself appropriately and there is a hierarchy in nobility and you had to be aware of that like seating arrangements or types of chairs you must know where you stand among these people in hierarchy order and if you didn’t do it right, you would be a source of gossip and you’d be punished in Versailles. Second, he made himself a reward so he used being close to him a reward from when he woke up to when he went to sleep so people were groveling over basically being able to dress him and help him in anything. Every morning there were people in his room to watch him dress if they were lucky enough and this is a huge privilege to the nobles. Third, he reforms his army. You have to have a modern army to be successful and Louis creates this. He makes sure that for every colonel there was a lieutenant colonel who snoops for the king and the army has uniforms to identify the sides which instills loyalty and he made the first veterans hospitals. This is when France dominates Europe’s but he couldn’t handle protestants because they wouldn’t conform so he revokes the edict of Nantes and all tolerance was over because he needed full control son many Huguenot’s left to different places across Europe and to America. Constitutionalism in England I. James I A. Issue of royal prerogative B. Money C. Religion i. Stuarts ii. Divine right theory iii. Puritans England and Low Countries, unlike the others, saw the development of constitutional monarchy or a limited monarchy. This is where power is shared with a representative assembly or parliament so there is a limit in their power so they can’t act in an unlimited manner. The Stuarts (cousin of Tudors) on the ones who un- deliberately create the limited monarchy. Under the Tudors, there was a good relationship between the monarch and parliament even though they were master manipulators to get their way but they did work together. James rules in Scotland and was more of an absolutist (or want to be absolutist but he did not fit the bill for an absolute monarch) so when he came to England, he created bad public relations, bad relations with parliament and most importantly issue of royal prerogative; he believed the power was divine right and he was chosen and didn’t have to share his power; he answers only to god. He would go to parliament and lecture them on divine right theory and how they are nothing and he has all the power which alienated a large amount of people but he believes it deeply. Parliament bad then only met when the king called them to a meeting and James hated calling it but he had to because of money. Parliament controls taxes. Money becomes an issue and he is forced to call parliament (happens in all Stuarts). Religion in Anglican or Church of England which is protestant and it is very inclusive; the church looks catholic but it is protestant. The problem is that there is a Puritan movement during his reign and these people are by the word of the bible and they were strict Calvinist (very extreme). They were a movement within the Church of England but they want to reform the church more and they want to get rid of anything that looks catholic still so we call this puritans because they wanted to purify the Church of England. James hates this so much and he fights openly with them and creates much hostility for himself. 1625 James dies and now there is a strained relationship with parliament. He left his son of his heir which is Charles I who took this bad situation and made it worse. II. Charles I A. Non-parlimentary means of taxation B. Religion C. War with Scotland D. Long parliament i. Ship money ii. land Charles hates parliament as much as his father and only calls for money. He decides to stop calling parliament and goes 11 years without calling parliament which is the eleven year tyranny. Non-parliamentary means of taxation or sneaky ways of raising money. This means that he takes some taxes traditionally emergency taxes and then uses and abuses them. For example, he got ship money which the king could levy (tax) for when England is to be attacked so it is very quick money in a crisis but Charles uses this all the time with or without a military crisis. Charles hated the puritans more than his father and his advisor is Arch bishop of Canterbury William Laud. He is highest in Church of England and Charles right hand man and they both hate puritans which are a growing population. The two of them make puritans lives miserable. Charles is also king of Scotland who is mostly Calvinist or Presbyterian protestant. Charles wants them to be Anglican so he and Laud hatch a plan to make Scotland like England religiously. Scots have been known to rebel and they rebel against their own king and go to war. Charles now has a war in Scotland and is still ruling without parliament and Scotland even invades northern England and then in 1640 he is forced to call parliament for help mainly for money. This parliament becomes known as the long parliament because they know they have him over a barrel so they stay in session for 13 years straight so parliament carries out a revolution starting with reforms. Revolutions usually start moderately and then for a reason, things become more radical and you get a full-fledged revolution which happens in England. III. English Revolution A. Reforms of Long Parliament B. Civil war C. Cromwell’s Victory D. Puritan Republic i. Triennial act iii. Royal prerogative courts iv. Star chamber v. Roundheads vi. cavaliers Triennial Act which says you can’t go three years without calling parliament and if this happens, they will call a meeting for themselves; this is a huge reform and very important and checks the king’s power. They abolish the royal prerogative. Charles accepted these changes and then he listened to the wrong people and decided parliament is out of control so he sent an army into parliament and purges parliament of their most extreme members and arrests them so things explode into a civil war. Parliament goes to war with the king. The major issue are the two powers and the two sides or armies; the cavaliers were the supporters of the king and the roundheads were supporters of parliament and were very sympathetic to the puritans. Oliver Cromwell is a puritan and Member of Parliament and becomes a military reformer and makes a new army model and his leadership is crucial so the parliament wins the war and defeats the king so what do you do after a four year civil war victory? They declare England a republic. They beheaded the King because they don’t want his line to continue because it may come back. Parliament is much under the control of Cromwell who has a very loyal army and parliament becomes very puritan and so does much of England; they are dominant as well as imposed. Eventually parliament and Cromwell can’t get along so he gets rid of parliament and controls everything himself. IV. Charles II and the Restoration A. Return of Monarchy B. policies Cromwell dies of natural causes. England is chaotic and so the army invites back a king who is Charles son. This is the restoration. Charles II had been living in exile and now has a chance to take the throne and takes in on any terms of parliament. Charles II is king and it’s a honeymoon period and things are blissful because he is lazy and likes to party but then he runs out of cash. Parliament put him on a special allowance and even that isn’t enough so he turns to France Louis XIV for money in a secret manner. Louis has an ulterior motive and this is him wanting Charles and his brother to become catholic and re-catholicize England. People and parliament are freaking out and there is religious hysteria. When Charles dies
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