Popular in U.S. History Since 1877
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Chapter 17 – Reconstruc2on 1865-1877 Civil War Ends 1865 Lincoln’s 10% Plan 10% of each confederate state must swear allegiance to the constitution before being apart of the union again. Congress’s Wade-Davis Plan 50% of each confederate state must swear allegiance to the cons6tu6on before being apart of the union again. • After the 13 amendment was passed (freeing slaves), many of the newly freed slaves suffered as they were not yet considered citizens. In Lincoln’s original emancipation proclamation, he implied that former slaves would become citizens but was deﬁned by state law in which the southern states did not have at the current moment. Assassina2on of President Lincoln • April 14 , 1865: Lincoln was assassinated in the Ford’s theatre – shot point-blank at the back of his head. • Andrew Johnson (VP) then took over ofﬁce • Johnson granted many former confederate soldiers pardons and opposed the sentiment to grant the vote to African Americans. Black Codes • Black codes were enacted across the confederate states to restrict newly-freed slaves of certain rights. • “The ex-slave was not a free man; he was a free Negro” Radical Republicans/Republican Moderates • Once the black codes were passed, republican moderates swayed more towards the radical republican’s views on how to reconstruct the south. • Secessionists and President Andrew Johnson believed that the south never left the union while radical republicans argued that they did. • Secessionists and President Andrew Johnson believed that the south never left the union while radical republicans argued that they did. • Johnson vetoed many of congress’s bills to try and give rights to freedmen but was th overruled by congress on July 16 , 1866 establishing the freedmen’s Bureau Reconstruc2on Amendments th • 13 – Freeing all slaves (1865) • 14 – Citizenship for freedmen (1868) th • 15 – Voting rights for African-Americans (1869) Congressional Reconstruc2on • The Command of the Army Act – required that all orders from the commander in chief go through Ulysses S. Grant as the radical republicans distrusted President Johnson. • The Tenure of Ofﬁce Act – required the president to ask permission from the senate before removing any federal ofﬁceholder whose appointment the senate had already conﬁrmed. • The Military Reconstruction Act – halted due to the triumphant victory of Radical Reconstruction. Republicans in the South • Carpetbaggers – Northerners who rushed to the south with hopes of economic opportunity and other attractions; packed all their belongings in carpetbags. • Scalawags – the most hated type of republican; southern born white citizens in favor of the radical republicans. • Freedmen – newly freed slaves. Democrats in the South • KKK – fraternity originally formed as a social group but then evolved into scaring republicans (mainly freedmen) from voting. • “Force Acts” were passed that gave permission to use military force to counter KKK • Supreme Court eventually found many laws passed by congress and Grant to be unconstitutional Congressional Elec2ons of 1874 • Republicans lose 96 seats in congress while democrats picked up 93 seats • Obvious national weariness with reconstruction 1876 Presiden2al Elec2on • Hayes (republican) VS. Tilden (democrat) • Popular vote was very close while electoral college was inconclusive Compromise of 1877 • 7 republicans, 7 democrats, and 1 neutral were chosen to decide the winner of the election • Republicans won presidency but the federal troops were also withdrawn from the election • Republicans won presidency but the federal troops were also withdrawn from the south • Threat of a civil war was averted 1877 Radical Reconstruc2on Ends Short Term Gains: • Blacks now had opportunities they did not have before • Also gained political voice Long Term Failure: • Jim Crow emerges (state sanctioned segregation) • One party political system remained in the south • Regional animosity and political divide Chapter 17 Summary – Reconstruc5on Chronology: ❖ 1864 – Lincoln refuses to sign the Wade-Davis Bill ❖ 1865 – Congress sets up the Freedmen’s Bureau ❖ April 14th, 1865 – Lincoln is assassinated ❖ 1866 – Ku Klux Klan is organized o Congress passes Civil Rights Act ❖ 1867 – Congress passes Military Reconstruction Act o Congress passes the Tenure of Ofﬁce Act ❖ 1868 – Fourteenth Amendment is ratiﬁed o Congress impeaches President Andrew Johnson; the Senate fails to convict him ❖ 1877 – Compromise of 1877 ends Reconstruction Important People During Reconstruc5on: ➢ President Lincoln – President during civil war; assassinated afterwards. ➢ President Andrew Johnson – formally VP to Lincoln but was sworn in after his assassination. ➢ Thaddeus Stevens – Radical Republican in the Joint Committee on Reconstruction; also was a manger of impeachment proceedings during the trial of Andrew Johnson. ➢ Horace Greeley – Ran against President Grant in the 1872 election; editor of the New York Tribune and promoted vegetarianism, socialism, and spiritualism; lost election ➢ Rutherford B. Hayes – presidential candidate that won the election of 1876 ➢ Samuel Tilden – ran against Hayes Key Points: ▪ Reconstruction – Lincoln and Johnson both wanted a lenient and quick solution for Reconstruction. His assassination made many northerners favor the radical republicans’ views on how to reconstruct the south. Congress stipulated that the confederate states had to ratify the 14 and 15 amendments in order to re-enter the union and also passed the military reconstruction act. ▪ Southern Violence – the south was content to ratify the 13 amendment but not the th th 14 or 15 ; blamed the freedmen and northerners for their poverty. Mobs began to attack blacks in 1866 and the Ku Klux Klan was also formed that year. ▪ Freed Slaves – suffered economically; given freedom but nothing else. Many took part in independent churches they established while other participated in politics during the last phase of reconstruction. Slavery was abolished but there was still “virtual slavery” (sharecropping, tenant farming, etc.) ▪ Grant Administration – members of the administration were almost all corrupt involving scandals to corner the gold market, construction of the intercontinental railroad, and the whiskey ring’s plan to steal millions of dollars in tax revenue. ▪ Grant Administration – members of the administration were almost all corrupt involving scandals to corner the gold market, construction of the intercontinental railroad, and the whiskey ring’s plan to steal millions of dollars in tax revenue. ▪ End of Reconstruction – Most southern states had re-entered the union by 1876. The election that year was so close that a secret meeting was conducted to decide the winner. The votes went to the republicans in exchange for the federal troops to be withdrawn from the remaining states.