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Principle of Biology

by: Takira Boyd

Principle of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO

Takira Boyd
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About this Document

These notes cover week 1 in the course which is Chapter 1: Introduction to Biology
Principles of Biology
Mr. Mager
Class Notes
Biology, Science




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Takira Boyd on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1504.9HO at Kankakee Community College taught by Mr. Mager in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Kankakee Community College.


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Date Created: 08/24/16
Principles of Biology BIOL 1504.9HO Week 1 Notes  1.1: Themes/ Concepts of Biology  Biology­ the study of life   The 8 Characteristics that define life are: Order (Atoms, to molecules, to cells, to cell components/organelles to organisms  Example: Humans consist of cells that make up tissues and tissues that make up organs  and organs that make organ systems) 1. Sensitivity/Response to Stimuli (Movement toward or away from a  stimulus is responding to a stimulus. Moving away from a stimulus is  negative while moving toward it is good. Example: Plants move toward  sources of light if in need) 2. Reproduction (Duplicating their DNA to give genes to the offspring which may be eye color, hair texture, etc. Example: If two adults conceive a child and both have black hair and the child has black hair… they have  reproduced and passed on their genes to their offspring.) 3. Adaptation (Being fit to an environment is due to evolution by natural  selection. Adaptations are not constant and also increase reproductively.  Example: Bears who live in cold climates have become accustom to the  cold weather. They are able to master their environment where they can  reproduce and flourish.) 4. Growth and Development (These aspects are dependent on instructions by  the genes. Since genes are given by parents the offspring may have the  characteristics of their parents.) 5. Regulation (Includes internally like digestion and handling stress in the  environment)  6. Homeostasis (A steady state. Certain things are done inside of the  organism to make sure everything is in line. Example: When organisms  get to a high body temperature, sweating occurs. Whether that is through  the tongue like dogs or through the skin like humans.) 7. Energy Processing (Using an energy source for metabolism. Example:  Humans consume food for energy while plants use sunlight to make food  in a process call photosynthesis.  ORDER OF LIFE  1. Atom­ smallest unit of matter 2. Molecule­ two atoms together in a chemical substance  3. Organelles­ cells surrounded by membranes 4. Cell­ smallest function in living organisms 5. Tissues­ groups of cells that have the same function 6. Organs­ collection of tissues with the same function 7. Organ System­ group of organs with the same function  8. Organisms­ individual living things  9. Population­ individuals within a species in a specific area together 10. Community­ populations living in the same area  11. Ecosystem­ all living things in a specific area (nonliving included ex: rain, soil, etc.) 12. Biosphere­ collection of ecosystems  Macromolecules­ biologically important molecules Example: DNA  Monomers­ small units= large molecules   All living things are mad of cells  Viruses are not living because they are not made of cells. They have to attack a living cell to then multiply  Prokaryotes­ single celled organisms that don’t have a nucleus  Eukaryotes­   Evolution­ a change in which a new species stems from an older one  In the 18  century Carl Linnaeus first organized living things into a hierarchical system  (Currently the system has 8 levels, from low to high which are: species, genus, family,  order, class, phylum, kingdom, domain.  Phylogenetic Tree of Life page 14 Figure 1.11 (Look at the graph and description above) 1.2: Process of Science  Science­ knowledge about the world  Scientific Method­ a method of how to carry out a procedure which consists of  observation, measurement, experiment, formulas, testing, and resulting in a hypothesis  Hypothesis­ an explanation that can be tested (a starting point to future research)  Scientific Theory­ an explanation of the natural world based on facts  Scientific Laws­ mathematical formulas  Natural Sciences­ sciences related to the natural world  Life Sciences­studies living things (Example: biology)  Physical Sciences­ studies non­living matter (Example: astronomy­stars, sun, space, etc.)  Inductive Reasoning­ logical thinking using observations to reach a conclusion  Deductive Reasoning­ logical thinking using laws/ principles to get a specific result  Descriptive/ Discovery Science­ hands on (observe, explore, and discover)  Hypothesis­ Based Science­ begins with a question and answer to be tested  Falsifiable­ can be proven wrong  Variable­ any part of the experiment that can change  Control­ does not change in the experiment  Basic/Pure Science­ focuses on increasing knowledge Is not focused on developing a  product  Applied Science­ (technology) The goal is to solve real­world problems. Contrast to  Basic/ Pure Science. 


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