Communicable Diseases Notes
Communicable Diseases Notes NUR 349
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Raynor on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUR 349 at Molloy College taught by Paraszczuk in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see HumanistChldFam in Nursing and Health Sciences at Molloy College.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Communicable Diseases Incidence and complications have declined with increase of immunizations Complications decreased with use of abx and antitoxins Less permanent diability and death resulting from these diseases when they do occur now Different types of infections o Viral, bacterial, fungal, insect borne, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Viral examthems – caused by virus and cause rash/viral conditions that cause rash o Rubeola (measles) o Rubella (German measles) o Fifth disease (parvovirus B19) o Roseola infantum o Enterovirus infection (Coxsackievirus) o Varicellazoster (chickenpox) o Herpes zoster o Several are variations of herpes virus RN care o Assess for symptoms o When suspected – important to assess Recent exposure to known case Prodromal symptoms (not so specific) Constitutional symptoms (fever, rash) (symptoms that are typical) Immunity status (had vaccine or disease) o Must use caution in hospitalized pop require isolation o Incubation period = when can communicate the disease o Don’t always know disease there until after rash appears o Primary prevention of disease Immunization = primary prevention – use immunization so don’t get dis o Control spread of disease to others Reduce risk of crosstransmission of organisms Infectioncontrol policies – isolate unknown rash Hand washing How disease spreads indicates type of isolation needed o Supportive care – for fever, itching, etc. (antipyretics, lotions, etc.) o Parent teaching Caution for compromised children o Children with immunodeficiency (can’t use live virus in these kids) Delay vaccines until at age of which child’s body can handle immunizations o Receiving steroid therapy o Other immunosuppressive therapies (ex: chemotherapy) o Generalized malignancies o Immunologic disorder o Young babies bec haven’t been through full series of vaccinations Rubeola (Measles) Agent: virus Source: secretions; droplet transmission Incubation: 10 to 20 days o Means have up to 20 days from time exposed to develop dis Communicability from 4 days before to 5 days after appearance of rash Koplik’s spots appear 2 days before rash – not always evident to parent Rash first appears at the hairline and spreads from head to toe over 3 days and ultimately involves the palms and soles Measles encephalitis is a dangerous complication that can effect brain func Rubella (German Measles) Agent: rubella virus Transmission via direct contact or indirect contact with article freshly contaminated w/ nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, stool, or urine Incubation: 14 to 21 days Complications rare Greatest danger is teratogenic effect on fetus Less serious than measles Rubella rash similar to measles rash but usually not as dark and dense Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) Agent: human parvovirus Rash in three stages “Slapped face” appearance disappears in 1 to 4 days o Cheeks rosey and red Maculopapular rash on extremities – lasts 7 days or more Rash subsides but reappears if skin irritated or traumatized by heat, cold, friction, etc. Roseola Agent: human herpes virus type 6 Incubation: 5 to 15 days Persistent high fever for 3 or 4 days; otherwise appears well o Begins as very high fever (~104105) very lathargic After fever subsides, rash appears Rash first on trunk, then face and extremities Difficult to identify exposure and contact Very common in toddlers ~15 months Almost all children by time have left toddlerhood have had Roseola Enterovirus (Nonpolio) Coxsackie virus (A & B) = hand, foot, and mouth disease Mild fever w/ lesions noted in the mouth and on palmar and plantar surfaces Lesions are very painful and uncomfortable o Have to eat mushy, soft foods; no spicy foods Incubation: 3 to 6 days Other enterovirus various symptoms of viral illness Contagious no school, but no hosp usually Varicella (Zoster Virus) Varicella = chickenpox Incubation: 14 to 21 days Occurs primarily in children under 15 years of age Leaves threat of herpes zoster as an adult Zoster (herpes zoster or shingles) Rash changes in appearance over time o Initially = mosquito bites (red and raised) o Later = vesicles Mumps Agent: paramyxovirus Transmitted via droplet or direct contact Incubation: 14 to 21 days Fever, headache, malaise, followed by parotitis o Parotitis = inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face May cause orchitis and meningoencephalitis o Orchitis = inflammation of testes that may render them sterile concern: adolescent males and mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Agent: Bordetella pertussis Transmission via droplet or direct contact Incubation: 6 to 20 days Short, rapid coughs followed by crowing or “whoop” sound Complications: pneumonia (usual cause of death) RSV and Pertussis s/s very similar in young children test secretions o RSV = contact; Pertussis = droplet This is 1 childhood dis that is increasing in incidence, esp <1 yr o Mortality also increasing Vaccine/booster esp imp for family of newborn or those working w/ children Infectious Mononucleosis “Kissing disease” EBV (EpsteinBarr Virus) – contact oral/genital tract secretions Adolescents but younger also (rash) Fever, malaise, sore throat, swollen glands, hepatosplenomegaly (lymphomas) Monospot Symptomatic management Scarlet Fever Agent: group A hemolytic streptococci o Not viral in origin Transmission via droplet or direct contact Incubation: 1 to 7 days (short) Sometimes strep throat presentation Sandpaperlike rash bumps small and densely packed White, strawberry tongue progressing to red, strawberry tongue o Must distinguish from Kawasaki Complications: carditis, peritonsillar abscess, glomerulonephritis
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