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PSYC 4039 week 1 notes

by: Lindsey Notetaker

PSYC 4039 week 1 notes PSYC 4039

Lindsey Notetaker
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these notes cover the history of psychiatry and the different types of history and will be on exam 1.
A. Baumeister
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4039 at Louisiana State University taught by A. Baumeister in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see MADNESS AND MEDICINE in Psychology (PSYC) at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 08/25/16
MADNESS AND MEDICINE TEST 1 NOTES INTRODUCTION- PSYCHIATRY  The good o Saves lives (ex: preventing depression) o Improves the quality of life  Reduces suffering  Improves functioning in society- benefits society and the mentally ill  The bad o Efficacy of treatments is exaggerated.  Treatments before he 1950s weren’t effective o Our understanding of the cause of mental illness is exaggerated o Growing over-diagnosis in mental disorders  What used to be problems of living (floods, death in the family, etc.) are now being medicalized. o Misdiagnosis of mental disorders  We don’t know where the boundaries are for mental disorders  someone with major depression can also have symptoms from bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, etc. this causes a misdiagnosis of their disorder o Over- prescription of medication  The US is quick to go to pills. We use more medication than any other country  The ugly o Harmful treatments o Recklessness researchers and clinicians  Everyone wants to be the first person to find the cure for mental disorders o Neglect and abuse  By both the researcher and the patient  The history o Definition: description of events (what happened), including a chronology (dimension of time), and explication of cause and effect based on evidence o 2 theories of history  The great man theory- the man makes the times (“Zeitgeist”)  The naturalistic theory- the times (“Zeitgeist”) makes the man  Things develop, knowledge develops, that makes a situation ripe for happening. Example: evolution Darwin wasn’t the only person who had a theory of evolution. Several others were coming up with theories at the same time. The idea didn’t originate with him.  Zeitgeist  Knowledge of antecedent events  The broad context in which historical events occur  It is the “intellectual spirit of the times”  Naturalism is the “overarching imperative”  Personalistic vs naturalistic is a false dichotomy  Naturalistic theory is dominant; the personalistic theory is subsumed under the naturalistic theory  A personalistic perspective is only informative if the influence of all historical antecedents are stripped away  Historical antecedents (zeitgeist) always contribute to the making of a great man/ woman o Historiography  The writing and the methods of history  Issues of historiography  Practitioner vs academic historians o Practitioner is trained in another field (like psychiatry) and write history of medicine o Academic historians have little interest in the history of science  Internalism vs externalism o Internalism  Focus on events most tangibly and immediately related to a particular historical events (ex: the discovery of something)  Context less important  Internalist histories more likely to be written by practitioner historians o Externalism  Focus on the broad intellectual, cultural, social, economic “currents” indirectly tied to a particular event  Context is the essence of externalism  Extreme externalism is a hallmark of “post- modern” writings (ex: hermeneutics)  Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation of written and oral communications  Attempts to reveal author’s true, but obscure, meaning and motive  Synchronical vs diachronical approaches o Synchronic approach focuses on particular in time without concern for how things develop to that stage  Great emphasis on externalism (context)  Emphasizes the naturalistic perspective (Zeitgeist)  This approach is often called “historicism” and failure to place events in historical context is often described as “ahistorical” (lacking historical context)  Many “historicists” writings are considered “ahistorical” o Diachronical approach focuses on the change over time  Tends toward emphasis on internalism, but externalism is appropriate/ useful  Tends toward emphasis on the personalistic perspective, but this is not a necessary aspect  Presentism: usually used in a pejorative sense o The word has multiple meanings  Present day ideas and perspectives are anachronically introduced into depictions or interpretations of the past (ex: cavemen riding dinosaurs)  Moral judgements based on today’s standard; only bad in context of moral relativism  Morality changes over time. Something that was right at an earlier time is wrong now.  Using past to understand the present and vice versa o Science, philosophy, and history  Putative differences between history and science  Historical events are unique, not replicable  Science prides itself on being able to reproduce events  In science the causal variables can be identified by isolation and manipulation  Science yields law  Similarities between history and science  Historical and scientific conclusions are evidence- based (both are empirical)  Both strive for proof  Knowledge grows as history and science progress  Historical conclusions are subject to refutation  Some sciences deal with non-reputable events (ex: evolutionary biology, geology, cosmology)  History is arguably, lawful. Big debate going on about this.  Candidate “psychiatric” laws  Efficacy of treatment is contingent on historical era (ex: some have argued that lobotomy was effective in its time)  The prevalence of a mental disorder is directly proportional to the availability of treatment for that disorder. o Before antidepressants, 50/100 million people were diagnosed with depression o After antidepressants 100,000/100 million people were diagnosed with depression  The conviction with which beliefs are held vary inversely with the depth and breadth of the knowledge upon which they are based  the law of unfounded certitude  If history is science, then the problems of science are the problems of history  Two foundations for “scientific skepticism” o The problem of induction  Science relies on inductive reasoning  Inductive reasoning is invalid; that is, the conclusion is not necessarily true even if the premises are true  Ex: I looked at 100 dogs, they all have fleas. I conclude all dogs have fleas. The premises is true, the conclusion is not true.  This is why no scientific statement can even be said to be true with absolute certainty  However, while no scientific statement can ever be strictly “proven”, they can be disproven  Popperain model of science  Conjecture  Refutation o The interpretation of experience  All scientific conclusions should be based on empirical evidence verifiable though sensory experience.  All sensory experience is an interpretation of the real world  The nature of reality as we perceive it, is nothing more than a pattern of neural impulses in our brains


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