Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Hills on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2220 at Clemson University taught by John Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
ClemsonUniversity Fall 2016 HumanAnatomy andPhysiologyI Overview PowerPoint Slide 1: WhatisAnatomy and Physiology Slide 2: Anatomy “Anatomy” comesfromtheGreekword“anatome” Means“dissect” Slide 3: Definition of Anatomy Study ofstructureand therelationship amongstructures;study ofparts It is notabouthowthe partswork or do butis alookat what the partsare Therearedifferentapproachesto studyanatomythat areknown asanatomical subdivisions Slide 4-11: AnatomicalSubdivisions Gross anatomy: - “Gross”meansthatsomething canbeseenwith the nakedeye;Object is macroscopic - Lookingat bones,muscles,heart,brain, organsetc. Regionalanatomy: - Refersto aspecific regionofthebodysuchasthe thoraciccavity, leg, abdominal cavity, etc. - Ex: Neck Lookingatthe musculature,bloodvesselcomponents,etc. ofthe neck Systemic anatomy: - Refersto specific organsystemssuchasthe muscular,skeletal, nervous, endocrine,anddigestive systems - Ex: Cardiovascular system Lookingat theauricles, ventricles, aorta,etc. ofthe heart Surfaceanatomy: - Study oftheformandmarkings onthesurfaceofthebody - Ex: Pictureofhand Canseethebloodvesselsunderlyingthe surfaceofthe hand(Vasculature),tendonsthat aremusclesthat move thefingers,and abnormalfeatures(Femalesufferingfromrheumatoidarthritis) - Ex: Ableto seetheendofanarm wheretheboneis andwatch as the muscles moveandcontract - Surfaceanatomyhasledto the forensic reconstruction field: o Becausemarkingsonthe surfacearedueto things underneaththe surface,this ideacan beworkedbackwards o Ex: Ifbonesarefoundinthemiddle ofaforest,it is possibleto look atthe featuresofaskull (For example) Placing ofthe rightthickness of muscle andskin ontopto reconstructtheheadso that it lookslike areal person Microscopic anatomy: - Unable to seespecimen without aid - Generallyreferringto specimenthat areless than½ mm Requiressomething to magnify specimen - 2types ofmicroscopicanatomy: a) Cytology: o Study ofcells o Ex: Ovaryin picture Primordial andGraafiancellsshown b) Histology: o Study oftissues o Ex: Ovaryin picture Epithelial, connective, andsmoothmuscle tissue areall present Developmental anatomy: - Study ofchangesinanatomy fromtime whenthe eggis fertilized until death - Subdivision ofdevelopmentalanatomy: Embryology o Refersto thetime the eggis fertilized until birth o Technically: Embryo term isusedup throughthe8 week post- conceptionandthen fetusterm is usedafter then—Someusealternative definition Pathologicalanatomy: - Study ofthechangeofstructuredueto disease Radiographic anatomy: - Firstcame aboutin the1940’sduringWWIIwith X-raytechnology - Study ofstructureusingspecialized imaging technology - MedicalImagingTypes (Slides 12-21): a) X-ray: Light energy o Passesshortlengthlight waves(Gamma radiation) throughthebody o Aslight waves areshotthroughthebody,somelight wavesareabsorbed while otherspassthrough o The componentsofthebodythat absorb themostlight energyglow the brightest –Thesearegenerallythe hardpartsofthebodysuchasbones o Unable to seesofttissue with X-rayimaging b) CT Scan:Lightenergy o CT standsfor computerizedtomography o Useslight energylike X-rays butessentially X-rays aretakenin sections o Ex: Pictureofhead If youstart atthe topofthe head,youareableto changethedepth andfocusso that layeringofX-raysis what is composed in thecomputer o Alternative explanation: AnX-ray isa verylargeimage andthecomputer is ableto lookat onethinpiece; CT scansareableto sectiondifferent partsofthe generalX-raywithout overlap o Bonesareverybright o Becauseacomputer is beingused,thereis someshadowingin the picture for wherethebraintissue is present Ableto seethelenses becausetheyarehard o CT scansarehelpfulin searchingfor braintumors,nasalpolyps, etc. c) Xenon CT: Lightenergy o Makesthe resulting image morevivid thana CT scan o Xenon:Gasthat gets radioactivelylabeled Radioactive substanceis what gives offgammaradiationthat gives the brightimage ofthebody o Computer is usedto determine howbrightthe image is o Process:Thesubject patient inhales thexenongas lungs blood stream Deliveredto tissues ofthebodythat is mostactive which then accumulate thegas o Application ex: Inthe picture, amild strokeis apparentsincethereis a bloodsupplyreductionin theless brightareasofthebrain(That particular part ofthebrainis less active thanother partsthat arehealthy becauseofthestrokeeffects) d) DSR Scan:Lightenergy o DSRstandsfor Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction o The samelight energyandX-ray technologyis usedinDSRscan butnow picturesarebeing taken all theway aroundthebodyto give a3D image instead offromonepane o Ableto rotatearoundbitsandpieces oftheoverall3D image aswell e) DSA: Lightenergy o DSAstandsfor Digital Subtraction Angiography o Angiography:Relatedto bloodvessels o Process: Take 2pictures Firstpicture acts asabaseline Acontrast medium is injected into thecirculatory systemso that is visible when thesecondpicture istaken andonly thebloodvessels will beseen Subtractthe first picturefromthe secondpictureto only showthe bloodvessels o Ex: Resulting bottomright picture showshowthereis aleaker in the due to the patient sufferingtrauma o DSAcanalso be usedto showthrombosisin vesselsin theleg, arteriesin the heart,etc. f) PET Scan:Lightenergy o PET stands for PositronEmissionTomography o Similar to XenonCT butthe patient is injected with aradioisotopeinstead ofinhaling agas o Like XenonCT, theradioisotopewill traveland bepicked upbythe most active cells o Ableto lookat metabolic processes o Usedto lookat softtissue NOT bone o Ex: Pictureshowing drugfor Parkinson’sdisease NormalPET scan shownin topleft Middle section showsanindividual sufferingfromParkinson’s disease(Whencertain partsofthebraincalled basalnuclei which fine tunemuscle contractionsarenotfunctioning properlyso the patient developsapalsy—tremorsandshakes) Patient with Parkinson’sdiseasedoesnotgetas muchactivity in the basalnuclei in thebrainandthe drugworksto helpwith symptomatic reliefofthe disease Evident in the bottomleft image wheretherearebrighter imagesindicating higher activity g) Ultrasound:Soundenergy o Canbeusually usedonsofttissue in thebody o Usessoundwaves NOT light energy o Process: Havea transmitter andreceiver in aparticular device Soundwavesgo throughsofttissueand bouncesoffthetissue Picked upby thereceiver andsent to the computer to seehow intense it is Softtissue that absorbsmoresoundenergyresultsinnotasmuch beingsent back to the receiver o 2D,3D, and4D ultrasoundsareavailable h) MRI:Magneticfield o MRI standsfor MagneticResonanceImagery o Process: Use ofawaveofmagnetic energythatpassesthroughthebody Ionsin our bodyarecharged Magneticenergywavesbecome polarizedasthey pulsethroughthebodyandforcetheionsto line upmomentarily MRI useshydrogenionsthataremostprevalent in softtissue filled with water (Hardtissue like bonetissue doesnothaveasmuchwater in it as softtissues—Soft tissueis better for MRI’s) MRI’sareableto also usethe computer to go backinto the image andaddin missing piecessuchasthe skull o Ex: Pictureshows anMRIofthe head Taken to look for sinuspolyps—Comesupaslittle shadow i) MRS:Magnetic field o MRSstands for MagneticResonanceSpectroscope o Usesthe samebasic setupandtechnologyas anMRI—Usesa magnetic field pulsebut insteadMRS go after ionsother thanwater o Ex: Whenlookingat thekidney, MRSwill go after the chargedsodium ions o Ex: Whenlookingat muscles, MRSwill go after the chargedcalcium ions j) M2A o “Pillcam” M2A isa digital camerainpill formwith a built in light source o Asit is swallowed, it movesthroughthedigestive tractand takespictures o Patient must wherea devicefor wherethedigital camerasendsasignal to everytime apicture is taken andthenthe picturesarestoredonanSD card o Batterylife onthe camerais lessthan 18hours so itgenerally burnsout whenit reachesthesmall intestine o Produces3D coloredpicturesinsidethebody o Greatalternative to having to havean endoscopy Slide 22:Physiology Physis is Greekfor “function” Logos isGreekfor “Study of” Physiology Studying the functionofthe body Slide 23:Definition of Physiology Study offunctionsofbodyparts—Includeschemical andphysical/mechanical processes Slide 24:The Big Integration Structurecandictate function Functioncan regulatestructure Partsofthe bodyarebasedontheir functionandvice versa Ex: Redbloodcellsshownin picture RBCprimary purposeisto carryoxygen; They haveno nuclei or cellular organellesinorder for thepigment to bind to oxygen Slide 25-31:Levels oforganization in the human body Chemical: - Lowestlevel - All ofthe chemicals that areessentialto life andwhat rolestheyplay in our body - *Levelsbelowchemical organization includeatomic and subatomic Cellular: - Multiple chemicals puttogether make upa cell - Ex: Lipidsmake upthe plasma membrane;Proteinsmake upthe cytoskeleton; Nucleic acids makeup DNA - Cell: Structural andfunctional unit oflife - Cells make newcells - Overall: Cells arecomprisedofabunchofchemicals Tissue: - Acombination of2or morecells working together for aparticular task makeup atissue o Activities occurringwithin higher levels areoccurringwithin the cell o Cells arecollaborativelyperformingaspecial task - Ex: Nervousandconnectivetissue - Ex: Pictureshows 300-400neuroncellsthat functiontogether to make the nervoussystemwork; Neuronsallworktogether to sendan actionpotential downa nerve;Neurogliacellsprotectthe nerve Organ: - Acombination of2or moretissuesput together make upanorgan - Liver:Largestinternal organ - Skin: Largestorganoverall Organ system: - Put 2or moreorganstogether witha specific functionmakes upanorgansystem - Ex: Nervousandmuscular systems Organismic: - All oftheselevels oforganizationallow usto definethe individual to work - Organismic level = Humanbody Slide 32-40:Life Processes Limiting boundaries: - Skin separatestheinsides fromtheoutside - Intact barrier that keepsthings fromgetting into outbody - Skin allows adifferent environmentto beinside our bodythanfor it to match the outsideofour body Excitability: - Living things areexcitableand havetheability to sensechangewithin or around their bodies - Responseto stimuli - Ex: Sunsetting in the pictureis an externalstimulus that causesthebodyto respondandhavethepupils dilate Conductivity: - Bodycansensechangesandcancommunicate thesechangesfromonepartof the bodyto another - Simply, conductivity has to do with connecting onepartofthe bodyto another Metabolism: - Sum total ofall thechemical reactionsthat occur in our bodies - 2subdivisions of metabolism: a) Catabolic: o Breakdownpathways o Ex: Whenoneeatsbread,chemical breakdownoccurswherestarchesare brokendownto monosaccharides b) Anabolic: o Build upthings o Ex: Useamino acidsto make proteinsin order to buildmoremuscle Digestion: - Once foodisin thebody,mechanical breakdownoccursfirstwith chewing Chemical breakdownin order to getnutrients outofthe food Excretion: - Elimination ofwaste - Wasteinclude fecalmatter, urine(Nitrogenouscompounds),sweat,carbon dioxide(Excretedthroughexhalation) Movement: - Ex: Movementofskeletal muscle requiresmuscular contraction - Ex: Smoothmusclemoves throughdigestivesystem - Ex: Pumpbloodthroughcardiovascular systemviacardiac muscle Growth: - Increasein size o Bygrowing morecells o Bygrowing thesizes ofthecells alreadypresent - For themostpart, youarebornwith mostofthe muscle cellsyouwill ever have – Generally,thesize ofthe muscle cells arechangedwith age(Samewith adipose tissue) Reproduction: - Cells reproducethemselvesviamitosis - Reproductionofnewindividuals = procreation/makingoffspring *All ofthese componentsoflife processes thatlivings carryoutis to make it possiblefor reproductionto happen Slide 41-45:Survival Needs Survival needsarerequiredto beableto carryoutlife processesandtheyneedto be in theright amount (Nottoo little or too much) Nutrients: - All chemical substancesareusedfor energyandcellproduction - Get all thenutrients fromthefoodweeat Oxygen: - Neededbecauseitis an electronacceptor for cellular respiration - In order to produceenoughATP,oxygenisrequired - Extra: Atmosphereiscomposedofonly20%oxygen,andasonetravelsat higher in altitudes oxygenlevels decrease Water: - Bodyis madeup of60-80% water Therefore,water is the mostprevalent substancein thebody - Water comesfromfluids andfoodconsumed - Ableto take in water andlose water throughsweatevaporationandurine,for example - Extrawater taken in must betaken out Normal Body Temperature: - 37degreesC(98.6 degreesF) - <95 degreesF Metabolicactivity slows down - >99 degreesF Startto denatureproteinsin body - Go too highor too low normalbodytemperature Death Atmospheric Pressure: - Bodyrequiresthesurroundingair to bepressurizedor elsebreathingwouldnot bepossible *Ifwe haveall ofthesesurvival needsin optimal amounts,the bodywill exist in homeostatic condition Slide 46:Homeostasis Homoios is Greekfor “Same” Stasis is Greekfor “Standing” Homeostasis =“Standing Still” Slide 47:Definition of Homeostasis Condition ofstableinternal bodyenvironment Bodyis never constantbutis rather adynamic equilibrium Slide 48:Requirements for Homeostasis All ofour survivalneedsareat anoptimum for homeostasisto exist Whensurvivalneedsareat optimum - Therefore,optimuminternal nutrition, optimum internal gases,optimum internal water, optimum internal temperature,andoptimum internal pressure Thereis anarrowrangeunder whichhomeostasiswill occur - Deviationsfromhomeostasis Ill health(Ex: Fever,hangover) - Deviatetoo broadly Death Slide 49:Stress Estresse isold Frenchfor “Narrowness”or “Drawntight” Causeshomeostasisto belost Slide 50:Definition of Stress Anystimulus causingan imbalance inthe internal environment - Canbeinternal (within the body)andexternalstresses - All stimuli causea response,notalldisturb homeostasis Again: - Notall stimuli arestressesbutall stressesarestimuli - Notall stimuli causeadisruptionbut someofthem do Bodyhasatremendousresistanceto stress Hasmechanisms that respondo stressandget thebodyback to homeostasis Slide 52-53:Stress Regulation Mechanisms Nervous System: - Detect changesandsendchangesthroughoutthebodyto counteractthem - Sendselectrochemical messengers - Includesa detector,integrator,etc. throughbrainor spinalcord EndocrineSystem: - Chemical messages(hormones)canbesentto counteracthomeostasis Slide 55:Feedback Systems Fedan isAnglo Saxonfor “Food” Baec is Anglo Saxonfor “Back” Systema is Greekfor “System” Slide 56:Definition of Feedback Systems Anycircular situation whereinformationaboutthe status ofsomethingis continually reportedto acentral controlregion Thereis acentral controlsystem inour bodiesthat playa roleinfeedbacksystems, which is usually thebrainor spinal cordofthecentralnervoussystem(CNS) Somefeedbacksystems don’tusetheCNS Ex:Chemical messagesaredetectedby asensor thatcausesthe secretionofacertain chemical Slide 57:Feedback Systems Basedonthepicture, the flat graybar atthe bottomrepresentsthebodyat homeostasis Astimulus (Stress)that is applied causesadisruption in homeostasis Stressis detected byareceptor (Lossofhomeostasis) Controlcenter takesin information that stresshasoccurred Actioncarriedoutbyan effector Ex: Ifonesits onathumb tack Balanceis disrupted One’sreactionis to stand Regain composureandsitback down Overall: Feedbacksystems haveto do with acircular situation that istrying to restorehomeostasis Slide 58:Negative Feedback Wheretheeffector isreversingtheoriginal condition Ex: Thermostat—Ifa thermostatis set ata certaintemperature, andthe temperaturegoesabovethattemperature ACturnsonandreversestheoriginal condition to make it cooler Ex: Ifbloodglucoselevelsget too low Glycogenis brokendownviacatabolic reactionsto releaseglucose Bloodglucoselevelincreases Slide 59:Positive Feedback Whereacceleration/intensification oftheoriginal conditionoccurs Ex: Child birth—Whenthefetus grows,it puts stretchonthe muscular wall ofthe uterus Signal is sentto thebrain Secretionofoxytocin Muscle contraction Morepressureputontheuterus Moremusclecontraction Morereleaseof oxytocin,etc. Cycle repeatsandtheonlyway to getback to homeostasisis to get ridofthe stimulus (Fetus) completely andgive birthto thebaby Ex: Consumptionofalcoholaffectsthebrain, causingoneto want to consumemore until thepoint wherethebodycannothaveany moreandthestomach getsrid ofthe original stimulus ofalcoholvia vomit Returnto homeostasis
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