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World Architecture (ARC 318L), Week 1 Class Notes

by: Luca Tomescu

World Architecture (ARC 318L), Week 1 Class Notes ARC 318L

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Architecture > ARC 318L > World Architecture ARC 318L Week 1 Class Notes
Luca Tomescu
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About this Document

These notes cover everything we've talked about in class this week.
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present
Dr. Richard Cleary
Class Notes
Architecture, history




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luca Tomescu on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARC 318L at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Richard Cleary in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present in Architecture at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
World Architecture: Industrial Revolution to Present (Week 1) Thursday, August 25, 2016 Questions of Form and Meaning  “What is it?” (In regards to the function and form of structures) “Why this and not that?” o Pay attention to material, shape, and influences from the past  “Who cares about the building? Why?” o What it means to the architect, and to the patron o Meaning and Purpose Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Aesthetic Categories (18 - 19 centuries)  Introduction o Mozart said that the power of reason can lead to personal and social enlightenment o For Schinkel (an architect during the period), Ancient Egypt had discovered keys to deep knowledge, and he was inspired by this civilization  Made a painting of the 1811 performance of Mozart’s The Magic Flute o Look at Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility  Asked: How do we handle our logical capabilities and emotional responses? o These themes, reason and emotion, influenced every part of contemporary life, including architecture to a great extent  Rule, Sensibility, and Character in Architecture o Character is in regards to judgements on rule and sensibility o Architecture is composed of many independent parts that appear as an entire and complete body; each member agrees with the other  It was said that Beauty results from the form and correspondence of the whole  Concepts established in Andrea Palladio’s Four Books of Architecture o Beauty = regularity and harmony  Standards of beauty today vary greatly o Architects back then (all male) believed that beauty was absolute  They aimed to achieve this standard; everyone agreed that there was a “right” direction o Beauty is function and perfect form o Greco-Roman architecture was made in perfect and specific proportions o Classical architecture was believed to be the most effective style for achieving beauty o Classical elements with proportions create harmony and order in architecture o Even modern architects believed Classical concepts of order were crucial  Beauty was also the study of different means of achieving this order o Marc-Antoine Laugier, a preacher, wrote his Essay on Architecture  Argument: “That which goes against nature may be interestingly unique but never beautiful.”  On the cover, a woman holds an architect’s square, leans of parts of Classical architecture, and points to a natural hut  Architecture always characterized as female  A large baby with a flame on his head (representing genius) gets inspiration from the natural world  Nature is where we find things in their most natural order  Columns and capitals are inspired by tree trunks and beams  The problem for Laugier was that of overlapping structural logics; things like a structural wall and arch superimposed by a trabeated system  He was unhappy with church designs and how they combined random systems of order together o Church of St. Genevieve (Pantheon) in Paris was built by the king to show his relationship to God through the city’s patron goddess  The architect (Soufflot) was very specific with the structural systems he used  columns and beams along the bottom and arches at the top; NO mixing! o Soufflot sought to reconcile Gothic construction and Greco-Roman design principles  Original Gothic building were interesting but not beautiful (too complicated) o Soufflot’s question: How could he use principles and materials from Gothic architecture to create new structures of ideal beauty inspired by Classical architecture? o Schinkel was commissioned to build a public museum (Altes Museum) across from the palace in Prussia (present-day Berlin)  Ennobling vision of people coming into contact with the arts and emerging as better, more knowledgeable citizens  Façade of Altes Museum was inspired by ancient buildings, like the Greek stoa  Colonnade in front; paintings and sculptures around the side  Central area of the museum references the Pantheon, showing the continuity of art through time o Edmund Burke wrote: A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful  Talked about the beautiful (based on Classical architecture) and the sublime…  Astonishment is the effect of the sublime in its highest degree; the inferior effects are admiration, reverence, and respect o Boullee made a sublime project for a Cenotaph for Newton  He wanted to create a building to capture the awesomeness of Newton’s achievements  The structure encompasses scale, infiniteness/boundlessness (both exterior and interior)  Think of the HUGE sphere drawing o Asked the question: “What qualities can we give elements to make them sublime?” o Uvedale Price wrote: Essays on the Picturesque  “By its variety, its intricacy, its partial concealments, [the picturesque] excites that active curiosity which gives play to the mind.”  The picturesque is an aesthetic category between the beautiful and the sublime o Picturesque gardens were created for wandering, moving, and thinking  Inspired by landscape paintings, English people commissioned picturesque gardens o It’s a built landscape, a work of design; artificial in a sense  Man-made lake, organized trees, all designed o Gardens had guidebooks with them to enhance the discovery aspect o Winding paths gave a notion of discovery o Picturesque landscapes/gardens were a long-lasting theme in architecture o Architecturally, the picturesque was around for quite a while  It intrigued people, making them curious  Picturesque architecture may appear symmetrical but the symmetry breaks down as the details come out  exciting variety! o Schinkel, who had created the beautiful Altes Museum, later designed a picturesque building in the middle of a large garden  building elicits interest  Architects can easily switch styles depending on the situation th th  Aesthetic Categories (18 – 19 centuries) o Beautiful (think: Greco-Roman) o Picturesque (think: curious) o Sublime (think: OMG)  Architectural Expression: Character o Character: the specific expressive quality of a building; ideally, one perfectly suited to the building’s purpose  What is the building about? Which qualities need to be part of it?  Draw from the aesthetic categories  Ex: Altes museum had to be inspirational; garden house was informal Tuesday, August 30, 2016 Discussion Session  Greek Revival o Europeans began visiting Greece, getting inspired by its architecture  Couldn’t go to Greece before 1750s due to Ottoman rule  Began documenting everything there  development of the Grand Tour, which is a route around the Mediterranean taken to study the fundamentals of Classical architecture  Stuart and Revett were architects instrumental in the dissemination of Classical ideas  Start of a culture of Western architects copying Greek architecture within their own contexts o Le Roy talked about cultural continuity between architecture and its people o Laugier said good architecture shows structural honesty and integrity  A structure should show how it stands o A battle ensued between Greek and Roman architecture, and which one was superior  Piranesi said architects should mix up Classical architecture instead of directly copying it o Society was changing: architects had to make buildings with functions that had never been dealt with before  Looked back to Enlightenment for inspiration  Enlightenment: Emphasis on logic, reason, and the individual rather than society  Architecture was given a reason for being  it was an ethical purpose, for the people  Rationality and order were applied to city planning  The Aesthetic Categories o Sublime is about awe, but can also encompass terror o Picturesque inspires curiosity and is asymmetrical o Beautiful is inspired by Classical architecture Thursday, September 1, 2016 City Planning  Introductory Concepts o In the late 18 and early 19 centuries, there was a large culture of concert- going  As a result, many concert halls were being built in major cities o Question: How does architecture contribute to a great city?  Sense of beauty  Define a specific/unique place  Space efficiency  Public spaces  Connection of streets and buildings (transitions)  Sense of community o Visions of the city in the 18 and 19 centuries  Urban transformations: beauty and utility  Representations of authority: reinforces hierarchy, shows powers  Settings for public interactions: public squares, venues (esp. theaters)  Settings for commerce: promote trade and economy  Architectural character: unique look or style of a city  Architects pursued beautification (Classical style) but also wanted usefulness  Example Cities o City of Bath in England  Medieval Bath was walled for defense and to demark the exterior world from the interior operations of the city  Streets were unplanned and developed wherever they could go  City has history going back to the Roman empire; hence, the Roman baths  Gothic church was later built right next to the baths  Botthaspects transformed the city into a major tourist destination in the 18 century  Population grew from 2,000 in 1701 to 28,000 in 1801  It was a striking environment for tourists  The springs were redone with a proper spa; taverns and places to eat were built; theaters became the main form of entertainment o The architect John Wood designed the new plan for Bath  Took down certain walls to expand the city  Queen Square in Bath: Wood said “the intention of a square in a city is for people to gather”  Many of the houses surrounding the square were designed by Wood; bottom floor usually composed of shops  Obelisk dominates the middle of the square o Speculative building  Wood and his son leased property from landowners  They divided and subleased parcels to builders who agreed to build according to Wood’s plans within a specified term  Builders would sublease or sell lease to tenants o Bath circus (public square)  A place for events  Built in a circle with Classical facades; inspired by the Colosseum o Royal Crescent in Bath built by John Wood’s son (also named John Wood) in 1767-1770s  Rows had developed haphazardly behind the Crescent; visually not special o Urban transformations: Bath  Representations of authority: implicit in name (Royal Crescent)  Settings for public interaction: squares, sidewalks, venues  Settings for commerce: the business was entertainment  Architectural character: Classical order influenced by individual builders o Nancy, France th  A medieval town separated by a fortification from a 16 century expansion  Master plan developed by Emmanuel Here de Corny (architect) in 1753  Public square linking old and new towns; before, they were only connected by a fortified gate  Note that trees were planted along the fortifications (so-called 18 century skyline)  New town was made in a grid o Nancy: Plaza of Louis XV  Dedicated in 1755  Architect behind it was Corny  City hall lies along one side of the square  Center: bronze statue of Louis XV with allegorical figures celebrating his just rule  Gate at the corner of the square provides access to a promenade (now a park)  Triumphal arch in Roman style celebrates Louis XV o Plaza de la Carriere in the old town  Lined by townhouses with facades that were remodeled for uniform appearance  Square headed by residence of the King’s administrator o Urban transformations: Nancy  Representations of authority: explicit (statue)  Settings for public interaction: squares, promenade, public buildings  Settings for commerce: square, wide streets  Architectural character: Classical order according to social rank, stratification of authority  New Cities: Washington DC, NYC, Austin o Washington D.C.  Initial plan by L’Enfant (not an architect) in 1791 but he was fired  Set precedent for the design  Grid used for basic organization, cut through by radiating avenues, which linked major landmarks  Left large, open nodes (basically plazas) for future monuments  Imagined the National Mall as the center for entertainment  Planned a canal system for moving goods  It was an aspirational plan that even took topography into account o Urban transformations: D.C.  Representations of authority: explicit (government buildings)  Settings for public interaction: plazas and public buildings  Settings for commerce: streets and canals  Architectural character: Not prescribed except for major public buildings o New York City  Plan of city drawn in 1771  Dutch were the first to develop, starting with a Medieval-style city at the southern tip of Manhattan  British expanded in a grid with emphasis on the rivers (crucial to commerce)  Commissioner made a new plan in 1811, establishing today’s street grid  12 avenues running North-South, 100 feet wide  Cross streets 60 feet wide; wider at major cross streets  Standard block: 200 x 920 feet, 20 blocks/mile  Put uniform geometry on top of varied topography  Divided property in a way that could be sold effectively  Central Park inserted into grid in 1855 o Urban transformations: NYC  Representations of authority: not explicit in plan  Settings for public interaction: public buildings  Settings for commerce: streets and rivers  Architectural character: not prescribed o Austin  Planned by Edwin Waller in 1839  Pragmatic grid for easily selling property; location of the Capitol was known o Urban transformations: Austin  Representations of authority: only explicit for Capitol  Settings for public interaction: public buildings and exterior spaces  Settings for commerce: streets system  Architectural character: not prescribed o


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