New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

CH 101, Chapter One Notes

by: Rebekah Hartless

CH 101, Chapter One Notes CH 101

Rebekah Hartless
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the entirety of Chapter One: Atoms. I took these notes from the lectures and textbook. Figures and diagrams are included.
General Chemi
Dr. Martin Bakker
Class Notes
General Chemistry, atoms, figures, Diagrams, Chemistry
25 ?




Popular in General Chemi

Popular in Chemistry

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebekah Hartless on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Martin Bakker in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see General Chemi in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for CH 101, Chapter One Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/25/16
CHAPTER ONE: ATOMS MATTER  Matter – anything that takes up space and has mass  Composed of particles  Structure determines the properties  Atoms are the building blocks of matter  2+ atoms = molecule  Early ideas of matter - Leucippus and Democritus – first to propose the definition of matter - John Dalton – evidence supported Leucippus and Democritus States of Matter  Solid - Atoms/molecules pack closely together - Vibrate but don’t move past each other - Fixed volume/shape  Liquid - Atoms/molecules pack close but able to move past each other - Fixed volume but no fixed shape - Assume shape of container  Gas - A lot of space between atoms/molecules - No fixed volume/shape - Free movement - ill all available space - Compressible Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures  Matter is classified based on its composition  Pure substance - One component/composition does not vary from one sample to another - Composed of individual atoms or a group of atoms - Elements or compounds - Can be broken down/decomposed  Mixtures - Compounds of 2+ particles that varies from one sample to another - Heterogeneous o Composition varies o Contains multiple substances that can be seen - Homogenous o Same composition throughout Scientific Approach to Knowledge  Based on observation and experimentation  Process of understanding nature  Key characteristics: - Observations – data - Hypothesis – interpretation for observation - Experiments – testing to confirm/deny hypothesis - Scientific law – statement that summarizes all past experiments and predicts future ones o Law of Conservation of Mass – “matter is neither created nor destroyed” - Theory – model for the way nature is, explains WHY o Atomic theory – total mass in a chemical reaction remains the same throughout Measurement  Quantitative observation  Unit - agreed-upon quantity - Metric system – used in most of the world - English system – used in the U.S. - Scientists used the International System of Units (SI)  Accuracy – how close a measurement is to a true value  Precision – how close a set of measurements are to each other  Significant Figures - No measurement is more accurate than half of the smallest division - Ant digit that is not zero is significant - Zeros between non-zeros are significant - Zeros to the left of any digits are NOT significant - Number greater than 1 = all zeros to the right of the decimal are significant - Number less than 1 = only zeros at the end and between are significant - Rounding rules o Digit being rounded >5 = add 1 to least significant o Digit being rounded <5 = leave unchanged o ROUND AT THE END OF THE PROBLEM - Addition/Subtraction o Answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal than any of the original numbers - Multiplication/Division o Number of significant figures in result is set by an original number with the smallest number of significant figures - Exact numbers o Numbers of objects are considered to have an infinite number of significant figures o Do NOT round to the next whole number MODERN ATOMIC THEORY Law of Conservation of Mass  Antoine Lavoisier  Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction  Total mass of substances does not change Law of Definite Proportions  Joseph Proust  All samples of a compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements  Law of constant composition Law of Multiple Proportions  John Dalton  When two elements form two different compounds (A and B), the masses of element B that combine with 1g of element A is expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers - EX: Ratio of oxygen to carbon in CO2 is 2.67:1  2.67g of O reacts with 1g of C Dalton’s Atomic Theory Elements are composed of atoms  Atoms of an element have the same mass  Atoms combine in whole-number ratios  Atoms of one element cannot change into atoms of another element DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON  J.J Thomson  Cathode ray experiments - Cathode rays travelled from negative electrode (cathode) to positive electrode (anode) Charge of Electron  Robert Millikan  Measured strength of a field needed to halt the free fall of negatively charged oil drops  Determined the mass of the drops STRUCTURE OF AN ATOM  Thomson’s model (plum-pudding model) suggested that electrons were spaced out sporadically throughout a positively charged sphere  Radioactivity - Some elements emit high energy radiation - Alpha – positive o Ernest Rutherford – gold foil experiments  Alpha particles were directed at a sheet of gold foil  Predicted result: If the plum- pudding model was accurate, the particles being shot through the gold foil would pass throughout with minimum deflection  Actual result: Majority of the particles did pass through but some were deflected and some even bounced back  Rutherford created a new model (nuclear model) which has a nucleus in the center and an electron cloud surrounding it  Nuclear Theory - Most of an atom’s mass is in the nucleus (where protons and neutrons are located) - Most of an atom’s volume is empty space (where electrons are located) - Number of electrons = number of protons  atom is electrically neutral SUBATOMIC PARTICLES All atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons Atomic mass unit (amu) – measurement used to determine the mass of an atom Charges of a proton and an electron are equal in magnitude but opposite in charge Elements: Defined by the Number of Protons  Number of protons defines the element  Atomic number (Z) – number of protons an element contains  Periodic table – a list of all known elements grouped together by similar properties  Chemical symbol (X) – one or two letter abbreviation used to label the element Isotopes: When Number of Neutrons Varies  Isotopes – atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons  Natural abundance – percentages of isotopes of elements  Mass number (A) – sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom Ions: Gaining/Losing Electrons  Ions – atoms that gain or lose electrons and become charged particles during a chemical reaction  Cations – positively charged ions  Anions – negatively charged ions ATOMIC MASS  Atomic mass – average mass of an element  Represents average mass of the isotopes Mass Spectrometry  Mass spectrometry – separates particles based on their mass  Measures masses of atoms and the percentage abundances of isotopes


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.