Analysis, Pseudoscience, Logical Fallacies
Analysis, Pseudoscience, Logical Fallacies PSYC 1000
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cydney Tinsley on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Alex Northcutt in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Cydney Tinsley Psychology Day 2 Notes: Levels of Analysis, Why We Study Psych., Pseudoscience, and Logical Fallacies Levels of Analysis, Why We Study Psych., Pseudoscience, and Logical Fallacies 1. Psychology: Scientific study of the mind, brain, and behavior. 2. Levels of Analysis: a. There are six different levels of analysis a psychologist can study. They are: i. Social, in regards to the environment and people around you. ii. Behavioral, in regards to an individual. iii. Mental, in regards to thoughts and brain processes. iv. Neurological/Physiological, in regards to larger parts of anatomy, namely the brain and spinal cord. v. Neurochemical, in regards to neurotransmitters and effects of drugs on the brain. vi. Molecular, in regards to genes and proteins. 3. Why Study Psychology? a. People study psychology because we need to understand why people think and act the way they do and why biases can effect that. b. Humans have five main biases that affect our mind, brain, and behavior. They are: i. Hindsight Bias: The ‘I knew it all along’ bias. When you overestimates the likelihood that you will have predicted an outcome. ii. Confirmation Bias: The tendency to seek info supporting something you already believe. iii. Belief Perseverance: When someone gives you evidence that disproves your belief but you hold onto your belief anyways. iv. Naïve Realism: Belief that we see things as they really are. v. Patternicity: Tendency to perceive pattern in the world when there are none. 4. Theory vs Hypothesis: a. Theory: Explanation for natural findings in the world. Requires lots of evidence. b. Hypothesis: A testable prediction. 5. Pseudoscience: False science. Things claiming to be science but don’t have any actual proof. a. Why is pseudoscience a problem? i. Dangerous to people because it provides false information to the public. ii. Causes a lack of scientific thinking. iii. Discredits science, because broad or extreme statements are made as fact when there is no evidence to support it or evidence has been falsified. b. How to detect pseudoscience: i. Ad Hoc Immunizing: When loopholes are being created to defend their belief. ii. Lack of Self Correction: Real science will admit when there has been a change or a fluke. Pseudosciences will not. Cydney Tinsley Psychology Day 2 Notes: Levels of Analysis, Why We Study Psych., Pseudoscience, and Logical Fallacies iii. Exaggerated Claims: Large statements are being made that are special cases or are manipulative. Diet pills and fads are an example of this. (Is everyone who uses this pill REALLY going to lose 85 pounds in one month?) iv. Overreliance on Anecdotes: When all or most of the evidence for the study is based purely and solely off of personal experience(s). 6. Logical Fallacies/Why We Hang On to Pseudoscience a. Emotional Reasoning Fallacy: When you discount or believe evidence or a scientific finding because of emotional reasons. b. Bandwagon Fallacy: When you believe something because it the belief of a majority or because the people closest to you believe it. c. Not Me Fallacy: When you believe you’re the exception to a bias or a fallacy. 7. Scientific Skepticism: When you are skeptical of a science or study. a. Demands rigorous scientific proof. b. Remains open minded.