Eisenhower and the New Look
Eisenhower and the New Look HIST 2340W
Popular in History of US Diplomacy
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amaris Mae on Wednesday March 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2340W at George Washington University taught by Brazinsky in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see History of US Diplomacy in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/25/15
Eisenhower and the New Look Ended the 20 year hold of Democrats on the White House Felt that the democratic hold was bad for American policy Goals 1 Reduce domestic spending 2 Save the republican party 3 Fear of military industrial complex Like Truman he saw communism as a threat But unlike Truman he didn39t believe in the largest military Was afraid of having too large a weaponry Eisenhower worried that the US would ultimately create a garrison state Not dissimilar to FDR39s view he wanted a garrison state In which society was constantly being mobilized for war And not on civilian needs Dulles Saw the Cold War as a battle between good and evil Was not a good speaker Appointed to Secretary of State Placated the conservatives in the Republican Party Worked together very efficiently The New Look Military Industrial Complex Massive Retaliation not giving into the need for massive weaponry Eisenhower wanted to make it appear that the US would be willing to use nukes Quemoy Matsu Crisis Two small islands off the Chinese coast Taiwanese forces had continue to occupy them after 1949 China begins to bombard the islands US said he would consider nuking the area if the Chinese conUnued 0 Chinese backed down Operation Solarium the New Look Psychological Warfare Propaganda around the world Strengthens cultural policy America should subvert communist regimes in Eastern Europe Destroy them from within Via espionage Covert actions Alliance Allies are recovering nancially Liberalist capitalist structure of alliances Not only in Europe but also in south East Asia NATO SEATO Mutual security agreement with South Korea Mutual security agreement with Taiwan Covert Operations Working closer with the CIA Expanding the CIA Coup in Guatemala Did limit defense spending while growing US economy Limitation on Massive Retaliation Every time you used the strategy you threaten nuclear war What if those being threatened struck rst What happens if you cannot follow through Alienated some American allies Soviets increasing supply of nuclear warheads 1953 Nikita Khrushchev takes power of the Soviet Union Geneva 1955 Eisenhower met with Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulgana Eisenhower starts making some trust building proposals The Open Skies Proposal Allow each other areal inspection of each other39s military facilities Creates greater trust Atoms for Peace Nuclear materials would be allowed But only if used for peace Ex energy Not allowed for atomic weapons Neither of these proposals were accepted 0 But it started dialogue Camp David talks With Russia Russia said they may pull back on military funding U2 Incident 1960 American plane is shot down in Russian air space Eisenhower denies that it was American But the Russians had proof the pilot was American All trust broke down Berlin Uprising June of 1953 Workers riots and demonstrations Threaten the actual resistance of the communist regime The Strategy of Massive Retaliation Speech of Secretary of State john Foster Dulles before the Council on Foreign Relations january 12 1954 It is now nearly a year since the Eisenhower administration took of ce During that year l have often spoken of various parts of our foreign policies Tonight I should like to present an overall view of those policies which relate to our security First of all let us recognize that many of the preceding foreign policies were good Aid to Greece and Turkey had checked the Communist drive to the Mediterranean The European Recovery Program Marshall Plan had helped the peoples of Western Europe to pull out of the postwar morass The Western powers were steadfast in Berlin and overcame the blockade with their airlift As a loyal member of the United Nations we had reacted with force to repel the Communist attack in Korea When that effort exposed our military weakness we rebuilt rapidly our military establishment We also sought a quick buildup of armed strength in Western Europe These were the acts of a nation which saw the danger of Soviet communism which realized that its own safety was tied up with that of others which was capable of responding boldly and promptly to emergencies These are precious values to be acclaimed Also we can pay tribute to congressional bipartisanship which puts the nation above politics But we need to recall that what we did was in the main emergency action imposed on us by our enemies We live in a world where emergencies are always possible and our survival may depend upon our capacity to meet emergencies Let us pray that we shall always have that capacity But having said that it is necessary also to say that emergency measures however good for the emergency do not necessarily make Good permanent policies Emergency measures are costly they are super cial and they imply that the enemy has the initiative They cannot be depended on to serve our longtime interests This quotlong timequot factor is of critical importance The Soviet Communists are planning for what they call quotan entire historical eraquot and we should do the same They seek through many types of maneuvers gradually to divide and weaken the free nations by overextending them in efforts which as Lenin put it are quotbeyond their strength so that they come to practical bankruptcyquot Then said Lenin quotour victory is assuredquot Then said Stalin will be quotthe moment for the decisive blowquot In the face of this strategy measures cannot be judged adequate merely because they ward off an immediate danger It is essential to do this but it is also essential to do so without exhausting ourselves When the Eisenhower administration applied this test we felt that some transformations were needed to a degree that leaves us no strategic reserves It is not sound economics or good foreign policy to support permanently other countries for in the long run that creates as much ill will as good will Also it is not P It s not feasible to have this policy No exit strategy The US is overextended For an inde nite period of time The US needs to nd a way to be more cost ef cient Keep in mind that Dulles and Eisenhower focus on covert operations and coups instead Change was imperative to assure the stamina needed for permanent security But it was equally imperative that change should be accompanied by understanding of our true purposes Sudden and spectacular change had to be avoided Otherwise there might have been a panic among our friends and miscalculated aggression by our enemies We can I believe make a good report in these respects We need allies and collective security Our purpose is to make these relations more effective less costly This can be done by placing more reliance on deterrent power and less dependence on local defensive power This is accepted practice so far as local communities are concerned We keep locks on our doors but we do not have an armed guard in every home We rely principally on a community security system so well equipped to punish any who break in and steal that in fact wouldbe aggressors are generally deterred That is the modern way of getting maximum protection at a bearable cost What the Eisenhower administration seeks is a similar international security system Local defense will always be important But there is no local defense which alone will contain the mighty land power of the Communist world Otherwise for example a potential aggressor who is glutted with manpower might be tempted to attack in con dence that resistance would be con ned to manpower He might be tempted to attack in places where his superiority was decisive Not going to match force for force Eliminating the threat as quickly as possible quotIf you bring troops we bring nukesquot We are going to be unpredictable here The way to deter aggression is for the free community to be willing and able to respond vigorously at places and with means of its own choosing So long as our basic policy concepts were unclear our military leaders could not be selective in building our military power If an enemy could pick his time and place and method of warfare and if our policy was to remain the traditional one of meeting aggression by direct and local opposition then we needed to be ready to ght in the Arctic and in the Tropics in Asia the Near East and in Europe by sea by land and by air with old weapons and with new weapons But before military planning could be changed the President and his advisers as represented by the National Security Council had to take some basic policy decisions This has been done The basic decision was to depend primarily upon a great capacity to retaliate instantly by means and at places of our choosing Now the Department of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff can shape our military establishment to t what is our policy instead of having to try to be ready to meet The enemy s many choices That permits of a selection of military means instead of a multiplication of means As a result it is now possible to get and share more basic security at less cost Eisenhower39s Military Industrial Complex My fellow Americans Three days from now after half a century in the service of our country I shall lay down the responsibilities of of ce as in traditional and solemn ceremony the authority of the Presidency is vested in my successor This evening I come to you with a message of leavetaking and farewell and to share a few nal thoughts with you my countrymen Like every other citizen I wish the new President and all who will labor with him Godspeed I pray that the coming years will be blessed with peace and prosperity for all Our people expect their President and the Congress to nd essential agreement on issues of great moment the wise resolution of which will better shape the future of the Nation My own relations with the Congress which began on a remote and tenuous basis when long ago a member of the Senate appointed me to West Point have since ranged to the intimate during the war and immediate postwar period and nally to the mutually interdependent during these past eight years In this nal relationship the Congress and the Administration have on most vital issues cooperated well to serve the national good rather than mere partisanship and so have assured that the business of the Nation should go forward So my of cial relationship with the Congress ends in a feeling on my part of gratitude that we have been able to do so much together We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations Three of these involved our own country Despite these holocausts America is today the strongest the most in uential and most productive nation in the world Understandany proud of this preeminence we yet realize that America39s leadership and prestige depend not merely upon our unmatched material progress riches and military strength but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment Throughout America39s adventure in free government our basic purposes have been to keep the peace to foster progress in human achievement and to enhance liberty dignity and integrity among people and among nations To strive for less would be unworthy of a free and religious people Any failure traceable to arrogance or our lack of comprehension or readiness to sacri ce would in ict upon us grievous hurt both at home and abroad Progress toward these nobe goals is persistently threatened by the con ict now engul ng the world It commands our whole attention absorbs our very beings We face a hostile ideology global in scope atheistic in character ruthless in purpose and insidious in method Unhappily the danger is poses promises to be of inde nite duration To meet it successfully there is called for not so much the emotional and transitory sacri ces of crisis but rather those which enable us to carry forward steadily surely and without complaint the burdens of a prolonged and complex struggle with liberty the stake Only thus shall we remain despite every provocation on our charted course toward permanent peace and human betterment Crises there will continue to be In meeting them whether foreign or domestic great or small there is a recurring temptation to feel that some spectacular and costly action could become the miraculous solution to all current dif culties A huge increase in newer elements of our defense development of unrealistic programs to cure every I in agriculture a dramatic expansion in basic and applied research these and many other possibilities each possibly promising in itself may be suggested as the only way to the road we wish to travel But each proposal must be weighed in the light of a broader consideration the need to maintain balance in and among national programs balance between the private and the public economy balance between cost and hoped for advantage balance between the clearly necessary and the comfortably desirable balance between our essential requirements as a nation and the duties imposed by the nation upon the individual balance between actions of the moment and the national welfare of the future Good judgment seeks balance and progress lack of it eventually nds imbalance and frustration The record of many decades stands as proof that our people and their government have in the main understood these truths and have responded to them well in the face of stress and threat But threats new in kind or degree constantly arise I mention two only IV A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment Our arms must be mighty ready for instant action so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction Our military organization today bears little relation to that known by any of my predecessors in peacetime or indeed by the ghting men of World War II or Korea Until the latest of our world con icts the United States had no armaments industry American makers of plowshares could with time and as required make swords as well But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions Added to this three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations We recognize the imperative need for this development Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications In the The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist We must never let the weight of this combination We should take nothing for granted Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel so that security and liberty may prosper together Worried about the size of the US military And the impact this has on democracy What is the relationship between the government and the military And the sway of companies that create weaponry Doesn t want war to be waged for pro t Worried about the amount of money the US is spending on the army We might destroy our own ideals Akin to and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrialmilitary posture has been the technological revolution during recent decades about In this revolution research has become central it also becomes more formalized complex and costly A steadily increasing share is conducted for by or at the direction of the Federal government Today the solitary inventor tinkering in his shop has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing elds In the same fashion the free university historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scienti c discovery has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research Partly because of the huge costs involved a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers The prospect of domination of the nation39s scholars by Federal employment project allocations and the power of money is ever present And is gravely to be regarded Yet in holding scienti c research and discovery in respect as we should we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scienti c technological elite It is the task of statesmanship to mold to balance and to integrate these and other forces new and old within the principles of our democratic system ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free society V Another factor in maintaining balance involves the element of time As we peer into society39s future we you and l and our government must avoid the impulse to live only for today plundering for our own ease and convenience the precious resources of tomorrow We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage We want democracy to survive for all generations to come not to become the insolvent phantom of tomorrow VI Down the long lane of the history yet to be written America knows that this world of ours ever growing smaller must avoid becoming a community of dreadful fear and hate and be instead a proud confederation of mutual trust and respect Such a confederation must be one of equals The weakest must come to the conference table with the same con dence as do we protected as we are by our moral economic and military strength That table though scarred by many past frustrations cannot be abandoned for the certain agony of the battle eld with mutual honor and con dence is a continuing imperative As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war as one who knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built over thousands of years wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight Disarmament could be another option If you can39t use massive retaliation Disarmament is the next best way to stop spending on military To stop the US economy from being undermined by the costs of the Cold War Happily I can say that war has been avoided Steady progress toward our ultimate goal has been made But so much remains to be done As a private citizen I shall never cease to do what little I can to help the world advance along that road VII So in this my last good night to you as your President I thank you for the many opportunities you have given me for public service in war and peace I trust that in that service you nd some things worthy as for the rest of it I know you will nd ways to improve performance in the future You and l my fellow citizens need to be strong in our faith that all nations under God will reach the goal of peace with justice May we be ever unswerving in devotion to principle con dent but humble with power diligent in pursuit of the Nation39s great goals To all the peoples of the world I once more give expression to America39s prayerful and continuing aspiration We pray that peoples of all faiths all races all nations may have their great human needs satis ed that those now denied opportunity shall come to enjoy it to the full that all who yearn for freedom may experience its spiritual blessings that those who have freedom will understand also its heavy responsibilities that all who are insensitive to the needs of others will learn charity that the scourges of poverty disease and ignorance will be made to disappear from the earth and that in the goodness of time all peoples will come to live together in a peace guaranteed by the binding force of mutual respect and love Document No 74 NSC 53 quotUS Objectives and action to exploit the Unrest in the Satellite States 1953quot Response to unrest in Eastern Europe Psychological Objectives To nourish resistance to communist oppression throughout satellite Europe Short of mass rebellion in areas under Soviet military control Without compromising its spontaneous nature To undermine satellite puppet authority Soviet regimes survive only if they suppress their people Decided by Kennan What39s going on in East Germany is proof of this riots If you enlighten the people they will go against communism The weakness of communism is starting to become apparent to people under its control Courses of Actions Phasel Covert stimulate Atos of attitudes of resistance short of mass rebellion Establish secure resistance of capable of further largescale expansion Intensify defection programs Stimulate free world governmental religious and trade union activates capable of psychological effect behind the iron curtain Stimulate free world governmental religious and trade union activities Internal comping to honor martyrs of the East German revolt Free trade union denunciation of Soviet repression and demand for investigation of basic economic and labor conditions Reemphasize US support for German unity based on free elections followed by a Peace treaty Phasell Organize train and equip underground organizations capable of launching largescale raids or sustained warfare when directed Consider US advocacy of free elections in the satellite and withdrawal of all foreign troops from Germany Austria and satellites Cultural appeals to soviet intellectuals
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