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Week 2, Reading notes (Chapter 2, Sections 1 and 3 (3.1-3.5))

by: Leslea Motley

Week 2, Reading notes (Chapter 2, Sections 1 and 3 (3.1-3.5)) 4100

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Psychology (PSYC) > 4100 > Week 2 Reading notes Chapter 2 Sections 1 and 3 3 1 3 5
Leslea Motley
GPA 3.56

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Reading notes include info on: - Neurological connection of cognition - Brain anatomy - Principles of Brain functioning (contralaterality, hemispheric specialization, central lateralizati...
Cognitive Psychology
Kara Dyckman
Class Notes
brain, cognitive, Psychology, anatomy, functioning, lateralization, contralaterality, hemispheres
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslea Motley on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 4100 at University of Georgia taught by Kara Dyckman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 08/25/16
08/18/2016 ▯ Reading notes for class on 8/18 ▯ 2.1 Cognitive Neuroscience: the Brain and Cognition Together (Examine the neurological connection of cognition) ▯  Example of ‘cognitive disruption’ – brain damage caused ‘pervasive disruption of long-term memory’, but the disruption was selective  patient in example, KC’s semantic memory was intact so he recalled language, had normal intelligence level, could recall how to do most things without detail on his past experience doing those things  FOCUS: “Dissociations and Double Dissociations”  If you consider any 2 mental processes that seem to work together in a cognitive task, and how they are disrupted in brain damage, you can determine how ‘separable’ the processes are.  Interrelationship between cognition and neuroscience is strong  TERMS:  Semantic memory  Episodic memory  Dissociation – “disruption on one component of mental functioning but no impairment of another”  Double Dissociation – complete separation between two [disrupted] brain processes; evidence of this requires at least two subjects with reciprocal or opposite deficits.  Simple dissociation: one process damaged/disrupted while the other remains intact; no other subject has a reciprocal pattern  Full or Complete association: (‘lack of dissociation’) – disruption/damage of one process always accompanies disruption/damage of other process(es)  Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2.3: Neuroanatomy: Important Parts of the Brain (Scrutinize the neural anatomy of the human brain)  When discussing all human behavior, must include both central and peripheral nervous systems (“CNS” and “PNS”)  In cognitive neuroscience – FOCUS ONLY ON CNS – the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD  main focus – the NEOCORTEX – aka “cerebral cortex” 2.3.1: Brain Anatomy  Lower brain structures:  older in terms of evolution, governs basic, primitive functions for the most part, present in even very primitive animals  Thalamus: “inner room” or “chamber” o relays messages from sensory systems of the body into the neocortex o ability to coordinate info from multiple parts of brain, “remember what was said and who said it”  Corpus Callosum: “callous body” o just above thalamus, broad band of nerve fibers o messages pass over this “bridge” between right and left halves of brain or the ‘hemispheres of the cortex’  Hippocampus: o located interior to temporal bones o crucial to long term memory processing, esp. conscious memory  Amygdala: o processes emotional info o gets nearly direct input from olfactory nerves – smell can be associated with emotional response o connected to the hippocampus, which is why emotional experiences are sometimes most memorable  Neocortex or the Cerebral cortex:  “top layer of the brain, responsible for higher-level mental processes”  Four lobes: Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, and temporal (make up same tissue but each lobe carries out specific/related tasks, specialized to process diff info)  Brodmann’s areas:  numbers in text that refer to [Brodmann] maps to the inside and outside of the cortex 2.3.2 Principles of Functioning  Two significant principles of neocortex function:  Contralaterality o “the receptive and control centers for one side of the body are in the opposite hemisphere of the brain” o Right brain received info from left, and controls left side, vice versa o Exceptions to this rule: olfactory nerves are ipsilateral (same side) connections  Hemispheric specialization o Cerebral lateralization and specialization: “different functions or actions within the brain tend to rely more heavily on one hemisphere or the other or tend to be performed diff. in the two hemispheres” o Right: nonverbal, spatial, perceptual info processing (i.e., facial recognition and mental rotation)  Summarizing Central Lateralization: FUNCTION LEFT RIGHT AUDITORY Language-related Non-language sounds environmental sounds LANGUAGE Speech Prosody Reading Narrative Writing Inference Arithmetic MEMORY Verbal memory Non-verbal memory MOVEMENT Complex voluntary Movements in spatial movement patterns SOMATOSENSORY ? Tactile recognition of complex patterns (i.e., Braille) SPATIAL PROCESSES Geometry Sense of direction Mental rotation of shapes VISUAL Letters Complex geometric Words patterns, faces 2.3.3 Split-brain research and Lateralization  Sperry (1964) – invents surgery for severe epilepsy in which the corpus calloseum is completely severed to reduce seizure to only one hemisphere o Patients who received this surgery could be tested to reveal the varying abilities/actions of the two hemispheres  Recent studies suggest that lateralization is NOT as ABSOLUTE as was previously believed, but in fact, different functions are more/less efficiently n one hemisphere or the other, or they tend to occur somewhat differently in one side or the other.  Some may have the distribution of processes associated w/ left and right hemisphere reversed; in other words, take note of variability between individuals  Culture may also influence cognitive neurological processing 2.3.4 Cortical Specialization  Localization or specialization of function in the cortex means that that part of the brain is extremely significant for a certain kind of cognition.  Type 1: Sensory and Motor Cortices  Sensory cortex: band of cortex in front of the parietal lobe o responsible for processing sensory info from throughout the body  Motor cortex: band of cortex at the back of frontal lobe, just in front of central sulcus o responsible for controlling all of your voluntary muscles  Different places along cortices are specialized for different body parts within both the motor and sensory cortices  Therefore, there is a localization of sensory and motor processes in the brain, ad well as, localization of different body parts within each of those parts of the cortex.  Type 2: Neural specialization: o specialization here found in association with processing in or near the motor cortex o Originally, these neurons were called ‘mirror neurons’ b/c they were thought to be involved when people mentally imitate or mirror another person’s actions  Type 3: Dorsal and Ventral Pathways o Dorsal: moves along top of the cortex across the parietal lobes  Primarily involved in determining where things are in space o Ventral: moves along the bottom of the cortex into temporal lobes  Prim. involved in determing what things are o Interesting to know that the visual system does process where a thing is and what it is separately, although the system brings info together later on. ▯ ▯ 2.3.5 Levels of Explanation and Embodied Cognition  Emergent properties: present when assemblies of neurons working together, but absent in indiv. neurons  Some aspects of cognition are emergent properties of collections of neurons working together  Basic tent of ideas about embodied cognition is that the way we think about things is a reflection of how our bodies work and interact with objects in the world  Much of cognition is oriented around allowing us to use our bodies effectively in the environments we find ourselves


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