Book Notes Page 9-21
Book Notes Page 9-21 SOC 2110
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Chapter 1 the Sociological Perspective Book Notes- Pages 9-21 What the difference between Sociology and Journalism? Journalist o Journalist examine and write about social issues. o They interview people o Conduct polls and they make predictions o Offer recomm. To fix social problems o They make reports in Newspapers, Weekly Magazines, and documentaries like to share work with general public. o 3 Types of Journalist: Reporter, Editors, and Editor Writers Reporter writes stories Editors generate ideas for stories and review copy Editor’s writers interpret events and provide way of thinking about them. o Have a degree. Jargon kept to mini., explanation are so average reader can understand. Sociologist o Study society w/intent to share work with other sociologist o Publish their writing usually in scholarly journals, in chapter of books, or full length text books. o The hope their work will be related to contemp. debates and social issues In comparison, there are two fields and represent diff approaches to social issues. Journalist get overview of an issue where sociologist gets they can explore the topic more in depth. The Development of Sociology Emerged in 19 thCentury Europe in response to the new living and working conditions. o People from diff backgrounds are working together in the same factory in exchange for services for land and protection Families are now forced to buy than food rather than grow it and forced to pay rent for their home. Many ppl scared by changes and wanted to cope with the new society The need to understanding of the new society, together with growing acceptance of scientific method Emergence of sociology August Comte (1798-1857)- French Born in French city of Montpellier. Grew up in political turmoil tht followd the French Revolution of 1788-1799 He became Henri Saint Simon secretary and then his close collaborator. He converted frm Liberty and equality to a supporter of society under Saints watch. They rejectd sense experience and was inspired by the natural sciences which they believe led to the success of the industrial process. o Set out to develop a “science of man” tht would reveal principles of society like the sciences of physics and chemistry explained and led the industrial progress. Comte split w/Saint in 1824 due to financial and intellectual reasons. Comete saw this new science sociology, which he named the greatest of all sciences. o He believed this sciences was going to bring all the science together as an whole. Later, he never read any material related to this. He spent most of his time writing Philosophe Postive, in which he coined the term sociology. He spent most of his time writing the contributions he believed sociology would make in the future. Weren’t concerned with describing it. Harriet Martineau (1802- 1876)- England/U.K. Born in Norwich, England. Deaf at young age, no hearing aids. She used an ear trumpet. Her father died leaving her with little money, she needed a job but couldn’t find one suitable for herself due to her being deaf writing. Published Theory and Practice of Society in America o Analyzed customs and lifestyle present in US. Based upon her traveling and observing day to day life in all of its forms Ex) Day to day life in prisons, mental hospitals, factories, family gatherings etc and so on.. o Book examined impacts on immigration, family issues, politics, and religion as well as race. Also, compared social systems in US to the ones in Europe. Work demonstrate level of objectivity she thought necessary for an analysis of society. Women advocate for their rights in US for their education and them not depending on marriage to live successfully. She also translate Comte six volume book Philosophy Positive her edition in two volumes. o She introduced the topic of sociology to England, she influenced Spencer and few American sociologists. Comtes himself preferred her translation instead of his own he told his students. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) Born Durby, U.K. He wanted to demonstrate how the idea of evolution applied to sociology, biology, psychology and morality. Produced ten books: Principles of Sociology (3) and The Study of Sociology. Principles of Biology (2) Principles of Psychology (2) Principles of Ethics (2) He came the most famous philosopher of this time. Became of proponent of social Darwinism, which is Charles Darwin notion of survival of the fittest, which species of animal best adapted to the eenvir survive and prosper and those who poorly adapted dies out. o Spencer believed that lack of success was an individual failure, and failure was no way related to barriers such as racism and prejudice Social Darwinism had a significant effect on those who believed inequality of races. People who had difficulty succeeding in the white world were members of inferior races. Fact they lost out in competition for status was proof of poor adaptability to environment. Many accepted because it served as a justification for their control over society. It enabled to oppose reforms or social welfare programs. Karl Max (1818- 1883) He grew up during the early industrial period. o The rural (country side) poor became the urban (towns and cities) poor. o People working together in urbans factories in exchange for services for land and protection Families are now forced to buy than food rather than grow it and forced to pay rent for their home. Revolutionary proponent of political and social system seen in countries that was once communist. He was not a sociologist, but his influence on the field can be traced back to development of conflict theory. He wanted to understand why society produced such inequalities, and he lookd for a way to improve human condition. History of class conflict— conflict btwn bourg, who owned and controlled the means of prod (capitalist) and the proletariat who made up the mass of workers—exploited. Emilie Durkhiem (1858-1917)- Produced the first true sociology study He helped chart sociology as social science. He believed society shapes people in every way, to prove his point he studied suicide- it’s a product of social forces In 1895 he published Rules of Sociology Method, in which he described what sociology was and what how research should have been done. Also, founded first European Department of Sociology Theory was proved right by, comparison records of Catholic and Protestant countries in Europe tht probability of suicide rates was higher in Protestant. 3 different types of Suicide o Egoistic- low grp cohesion, loneliness o Altruistic- over involvement, ancient honor code-terrorist o Anomic- feeling disconn. frm society vaules Focused on forces that hold society together. This point of view is call theory or functionalist perspective. *College Students are not at High risk for Suicide* Max Weber (1864-1920) German, tried to understand human behavior Focus was on individual meanings people attach to the world around them. Publish The Protestant Ethnic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904-1905) tried to th demonstrate how the 17 century provided an ideology tht gave religious justification thru pursuit of economic success through hard work. This ideology is called the Protestant ethic and it helped transform N European socialites frm feudal agricultural to into industrial capitalist society His work was an attempt to clarify, criticize and modify the works of Karl Max. The Development of Sociology in the US Began 20 century, UOC Their the first graduate department of sociology in the US was founded in 1890 Many of the leading sociologist of America was members of this school 1920-1940s University led American sociology in study of communities’ interest in urban neighborhoods and ethic areas. Jane Addams (1860-1935) Born to Quaker family, with antislavery cause. Father John Addams Dedicated to social reform. First Gen or women to go to college Not much wrk after so returned home Her and Ellen gates Star open up an Hull house identical to the one Jane visited in London. o It served immigration population o Offered a wide variety of clubs and activities She advocated for industrial safety, juvenile courts, labor unions, women’s suffrage, and world peace. Awarded Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 w/ Nicolas Murray Butler. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963) First African American to received PHD frm Harvard in 1896 Later went Atlanta University Country leading African American sociologist Argued for the acceptance of into all areas of society and advocated military resistance to white racism. Believed it was the white who held the power to effect such change and its was their responsibility Published The Souls of Black Folk, well-reasoned essays Felt torn btwn being black and being an American. He moved out of the country political exile, o “The problem of 20th Century is the problem of the color line” Died at 95 one day b4 Martin Luther King Jr. gave his speech. Talcot Parsons (1902-1979) Sociologist most responsible for developing theories of structural functionalism in US Later turned to philosophical and theoretical side of sociology Gave English translation of Weber and Durkheim, In the structure of Social Action The Social Systems his best known work, viewpoints elaborated on Durkheim perspective, he portrayed society as an stable system of well order parts Robert K Melton Proponent of functionalist theory Classic work, Social Theory and Social Structure, (1968) 1 published 1949, he spelled out functionalist view of society. Wanted to distinguish btwn the two forms o Social functions- those social processes that contribute to ongoing operation and maintenance of society o Manifest functions are unintended and recognized consequences of such processes. Ex) to go to college to obtain knowledge, education and a degree in specific area o Latent functions are unintended or not readily recognized consequences of those processes. Theoretical Perspectives Paradigms- models or frame work for questions that generate and guide research. Functionalism- views society as a system of highly interrelated structures or parts that function or operate together harmoniously. (Spencer and Durkheim) o Ex) school system teachers teaching kids. Conflict theory- proposes that each individual and grp struggles to attain maximum benefit. This causes society to change constantly in response to social inequality (Marx) The interactionist Perspective- focuses on how the individual makes sense or interp the social world in which they participate. See table 1-1 in textbook Into to Sociology Page 19 for comparison and a better understanding of theoretical perspectives. George Herbert Mead Developed interactionist perspective known as symbolic interactionism, which is concerned with the meanings that people place on their own and one another behavior. Contemporarily Sociology Builds on the original idea of functionalism, conflict theory, and the interactionist perspective. Melton (1968) Middle range theories- are concerned with explaining specific issues or aspects of society instead of trying to explain how all society of operates. Ex) why divorce rates rise and fall with certain economic conditions Or how crimes rates are related to residential patterns Theory and Research Sociology theory gives meaning to sociological practice. Theory without practice or research to test it is at best poor philosophy and at worst unscientific and practice not based on theory is at best trivial and at worst a tremendous waste of time and resources.