Book Notes on Pages 50-59
Book Notes on Pages 50-59 SOC 2110
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Chapter 3 Culture Pages 50-59 The Concept of Culture Culture- all that humans beings learn to do, to use, to produce, to know, and to believe as they grow to maturity and live out their lives in the social groups to which they belong. o A blueprint for living in a particular society o Crucial to human existence o Taught and learned thru social interactions. Culture and Biology Behaviors are highly variable and changeable, both individually and culturally unlike instinctual behaviors like web spinning from spiders are constant and do not vary significantly from one individual to another. Culture shock Culture shock- the difficulty people have to adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own. o Also can be experienced within a person own society Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism- people makes judgements about others cultures according to the customs and values of their own society. o Ex) Family Organization in East Africa is immoral to US citizens bc husbands are allowed serval wives To avoid ethnocentrism is own research, sociologist guided by concept of cultural relativism, which is the recognition that social grps and cultures must be studied and understood on their own terms before valid comparison can be made. o Never judge merits of any grp or culture. To be able to perform cross cultural research Marriage to a perfect Stranger Describes Indian marriage arrangement. Arranged marriage account for the overwhelming majority of marriages in India. Divorce in India is very low at slightly over 1 percent of all marriages. Components of Culture Martial Culture- consist of humans technology—al the things human beings make and use frm small handheld tools to skyscrapers o Provides buffer between humans and environment, use to modify and exploit the enviro Nonnmartial Culture- consist of totality of knowledge, beliefs, values, and rules for app behavior. Norms- are rules and behaviors that are agreed upon and shared with a culture and that prescribes limits of acceptable behavior. o Defines normal expected behavior. Look at ex) Kissing. Japan not done in public. Unaccepted it’s an sexual act. Mores- strongly held norms that usually have a moral connotation and are based on central values of the culture. o Rape, murder, etc. Thou shalt not kill Folkways- norms that permit a wide degree of individually interpretation as long as certain limits are not over stepped. o Eccentric or peculiar ppl. Holding doors and coats for woman. Not saying thank you Ideal norms- expectation of what people should do under perfect conditions. Real norms- norms that are expressed with qualifications and allowances for differences in individual behavior. o How people actual behave Values- are a cultures general orientations toward life—its notions of what good and bad, what is desirable and undesirable. o Understood by looking at patterns of behaviors o Americans believe if you are unhappy with your situation you must automatically change it however not the Japanese. Origin of Language Language makes it possible to share values, norms, and nonmaterial cultures. Human behavior is determined by culture and language, but animals are contrld by biology—is believed by sociologist and anthropologist o FOXP2, gene known to switch on other genes tht are important for speech and language Language and Culture Selectivity- a process by which some aspects of the world are viewed as important and others are virtually neglected. Such as a view on language o is known as Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, argues that the language a person used determines his or her perception. Indians view on life no such things as mental illness, who with this is to be treated with great respect because he belongs with the creator. Symbolic Nature of Culture Symbols and Culture Symbols are anything that represents something or carries a particular meaning recognized by members of culture. o Symbols stands for things only bc ppl agree they do.