HPRB 1710 Week 2 Notes
HPRB 1710 Week 2 Notes HPRB 1710
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HPRB 1710 at University of Georgia taught by Lindsay White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Health and Wellness in Public Health at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Week 1 Aug. 2325 Notes Aug. 23 Conventional Medicine ● Health care professionals ○ Medication ○ Surgery ○ Education ○ Physical Therapy other manipulations Strengths Weaknesses HiTech Diagnostics and treatment Emphasis on biological factors emergency medicine Insufficient attention to health promotion and disease prevention critical care for heart attack, stroke, et inadequacies managing chronic Prevention of illnesses through expensive vaccinations Quick treatment of disease through doctors treated as experts, despite some medicine limited knowledge Billions of dollars of research to back it up ● Allied Health Professionals (Physical) ○ Doctors ○ Nurses ○ physician's assistant ○ Dentist ○ optometrist / opthamologist ○ physical therapist ○ occupational therapist ● Allied Health Professionals (Mental) ○ Clinical social workers ■ case management ■ Treatment ■ Therapy ○ Clinical Psychologist ■ Testing ■ Therapy ○ Psychiatrist ■ nurse practitioners ● Health insurance 101 ○ In 2009 more than 60% of bankruptcies were due to medical bills ○ 78% had some type of health insurance ○ benefits of the Affordable Care Act ■ Free preventive care ■ prescription discounts for seniors ■ protect against Healthcare fraud ■ small business tax credits ■ preexisting condition ■ consumer assistance ■ health insurance Marketplace ■ benefits for women ● providing Insurance options, covering preventive services, lowering costs ■ Young adult coverage ● coverage available to Children up to age 26 ■ strengthening Medicare ● Yearly Wellness visit with many free preventive services for some seniors with Medicare ■ Holding insurance companies accountable ● insurers must justify premium increase of 10% or more before the rate takes effect ● Health promotion ○ primary prevention ■ prevent the development of diseases ○ secondary prevention ■ catches illnesses and either cures or prevents progression ○ tertiary prevention ■ Targets disease symptoms and attempts to slow progression ○ Enables people to take control over their own health ○ Less sick care; more healthy lifestyle education Complementary and Alternative Medicine ● Complementary medicine consists of health practices that are used alongside conventional medicine ● Alternative medicine consists of health practices that are used instead of conventional medicine ● Statistics ○ 4 out of 10 Americans regularly use CAM ○ 33% of adults and 12% of children used CAM ○ most people use these therapies as a compliment rather than an alternative to Conventional care ○ popularity of CAM treatments seemed to plateau and about 2008 ● Natural products are the most commonly used of complementary Health approaches, Followed by deep breathing, yoga, Chiropractic, meditation, massage, diet, homeopathy, Progressive relaxation, and guided imagery ● Manipulative and body based practices ○ spinal manipulation ○ Massage ○ movement based therapy ● Acupuncture ○ insertion of fine needles and two points along body meridians (energy channels) ○ Helps reduce various aches and pains ■ Back pain, labor pain, arthritis pain, menstrual cramps ■ Headache ■ tennis elbow ■ carpal tunnel syndrome ● Mindbody Therapies ○ Meditation ■ mindfulness meditation ■ Transcendental Meditation ○ breathing exercises ■ deep breathing ■ breath control ○ Yoga ○ Tai Chi ● Relaxation Techniques ○ Progressive relaxation: muscle group by muscle group ○ Guided imagery ○ self hypnosis: phrases or cues that trigger relaxation ○ Biofeedback: gain conscious control over relaxation response ● Energy Medicine ○ magnet therapy ○ light therapy ○ sound energy therapy ○ Therapeutic Touch and Reiki ○ Homeopathy ■ system of medicine that treats illnesses with highly diluted substances that, in larger doses, would cause similar symptoms ● “Traditional” Medicine ○ Traditional Chinese medicine ■ limited amount of qi ■ balance yin and yang ○ ayurvedic medicine ■ originated in India ■ healing can be achieved through daily practices ○ Curanderismo ■ Latin American folk healing ○ Native American healing ■ focuses on spiritual healing ● Naturopathy ○ system of medicine that relies on natural treatments to correct and balances and allow the body to heal ○ practitioners work with patients to address imbalances within the domains of Wellness ○ goal of treatment is to address the root of the illness rather than suppress symptoms ○ practitioners employ unique combination of modern Medical Science and natural medicines ● Holistic medicine ○ Humans have an innate ability to heal ○ all Dimensions of wellness must function optimally ■ physical, environmental, mental, emotional, social, spiritual, and financial ○ Patients are people not diseases ○ correct the underlying cause of illness rather than symptom relief ○ patients and practitioners are partners ● Integrative Medicine ○ evidence based medicine combined with alternative treatments ○ goal is to utilize therapies that effectively improve health and wellbeing while minimizing side effects ○ increase options to prevent and manage illness ○ advantageous for aging populations with complex conditions ■ prevent illness and improve disease symptoms and quality of life ■ reduces reliance on medication ○ principles of Integrative Medicine ■ patients and health practitioners work in a partnership ■ practitioners consider all the domains Dimensions of Wellness when evaluating patients ■ Practitioners promote Healthy Lifestyles to prevent illness ■ practitioners pick from both conventional and alternative treatments to enhance benefit and reduce risk ● The Placebo Effect ○ Placebo effect: (noun) A beneficial effect produced by a placebo drug or treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment ○ Placebo: (noun) A harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed for psychological benefit rather than for any real physiological effect August 25 Stress ● The Stress Response ○ Homeostasis:the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes. ○ Stress ■ Nonspecific response to stress ■ Fight or flight ○ Allostasis ■ The ability to achieve stability through change or modification ■ Allostatic Load: Cumulative effective of constantly adapting to stress ○ Sciencey Stuff ■ Stress activates the limbic system ■ Limbic System: ● Hypothalamus: The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating your hunger, thirst, response to pain, levels of pleasure, sexual satisfaction, anger and aggressive behavior, and more. It also regulates the functioning of the autonomic nervous system (see below), which in turn means it regulates things like pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional circumstances. ● Hippocampus: The hippocampus consists of two “horns” that curve back from the amygdala. It appears to be very important in converting things that are “in your mind” at the moment (in shortterm memory) into things that you will remember for the long run (longterm memory). ● Amygdala: In complex vertebrates, including humans, the amygdalae perform primary roles in the formation and storage of memories associated with emotional events. Research indicates that, during fear conditioning, sensory stimuli reach the basolateral complexes of the amygdalae, particularly the lateral nuclei, where they form associations with memories of the stimuli. ○ Fight or Flight ■ Sympathetic Nervous System: Fight or flight; part of the autonomic nervous system that contains chiefly adrenergic fibers and tends to depress secretion, decrease the tone and contractility of smooth muscle, and increase heart rate. ■ Parasympathetic Nervous System: Rest and restoration; part of the involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase intestinal and glandular activity, and relax the sphincter muscles. ○ Childhood Stress ■ Fetus is programmed for survival in a challenging environment by the mother’s level of cortisol ■ The child with hyperactive stress response is at greater risk for chronic disease ■ Chronic stress raises likelihood of developing mental illness ○ Stress & the Digestive System ■ Digestion is controlled by the enteric nervous system, a system composed of hundreds of millions of nerves that communicate with the central nervous system. When stress activates the "flight or fight" response in your central nervous system, digestion can shut down because your central nervous system shuts down blood flow, affects the contractions of your digestive muscles, and decreases secretions needed for digestion. Stress can cause inflammation of the gastrointestinal system, and make you more susceptible to infection. (http://www.everydayhealth.com/hs/betterdigestion/howstressaffectsdigestion/ ) ○ TED Talk: How to Make Stress Your Friend (https://www.ted.com/talks/kelly_mcgonigal_how_to_make_stress_your_friend) ■ Oxytocin ● Triggers you to crave social activity ● Triggers you to “vent” instead of bottling it up ● Natural antiinflammatory ● Aids in replenishment and reparation of heart tissue ● When under stress, if help/social interaction is sought, oxytocin aids in relieving stress and strengthening the healthy stress response ● GOAL SETTING ○ What are you trying to change? ○ What is your motivation? ○ What is the goal? Do you need smaller subgoals to reach it? ○ What is most likely to get in the way? How will you solve that problem? ○ Where will you begin?
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