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HPRB 1710 Week 2 Notes

by: Madeline Pearce

HPRB 1710 Week 2 Notes HPRB 1710

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Public Health > HPRB 1710 > HPRB 1710 Week 2 Notes
Madeline Pearce

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About this Document

Notes from Tuesday/Thursday lectures with added vocab, definitions, and graphics.
Health and Wellness
Lindsay White
Class Notes
health, wellnes, hprb, uga, premed, undergrad, week 2
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Pearce on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HPRB 1710 at University of Georgia taught by Lindsay White in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Health and Wellness in Public Health at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Week 1 ­ Aug. 23­25    Notes     Aug. 23    Conventional Medicine  ● Health care professionals  ○  Medication  ○  Surgery  ○  Education  ○  Physical Therapy ­ other manipulations    Strengths  Weaknesses  Hi­Tech Diagnostics and treatment  Emphasis on biological factors   emergency medicine  Insufficient attention to health promotion  and disease prevention   critical care for heart attack, stroke, et inadequacies managing chronic  Prevention of illnesses through   expensive  vaccinations  Quick treatment of disease through   doctors treated as experts, despite some  medicine  limited knowledge  Billions of dollars of research to back it up      ● Allied Health Professionals (Physical)  ○ Doctors  ○  Nurses  ○  physician's assistant  ○  Dentist  ○  optometrist / opthamologist  ○  physical therapist  ○  occupational therapist  ● Allied Health Professionals (Mental)  ○ Clinical social workers  ■  case management  ■  Treatment  ■  Therapy    ○ Clinical Psychologist  ■ Testing  ■  Therapy  ○  Psychiatrist  ■  nurse practitioners    ● Health insurance 101  ○ In 2009 more than 60% of bankruptcies were due to medical bills  ○  78% had some type of health insurance  ○  benefits of the Affordable Care Act  ■  Free preventive care  ■  prescription discounts for seniors  ■  protect against Healthcare fraud  ■  small business tax credits  ■  pre­existing condition  ■  consumer assistance  ■  health insurance Marketplace  ■  benefits for women  ●  providing Insurance options, covering preventive services,  lowering costs  ■ Young adult coverage  ●  coverage available to Children up to age 26  ■  strengthening Medicare   ● Yearly Wellness visit with many free preventive services for some  seniors with Medicare  ■ Holding insurance companies accountable  ●  insurers must justify premium increase of 10% or more before the  rate takes effect   ● Health promotion  ○  primary prevention  ■  prevent the development of diseases  ○  secondary prevention  ■  catches illnesses and either cures or prevents progression  ○  tertiary prevention  ■  Targets disease symptoms and attempts to slow progression  ○ Enables people to take control over their own health  ○ Less sick care; more healthy lifestyle education              Complementary and Alternative Medicine    ● Complementary medicine consists of health practices that are used alongside  conventional medicine  ●  Alternative medicine consists of health practices that are used instead of conventional  medicine   ● Statistics  ○  4 out of 10 Americans regularly use CAM  ○  33% of adults and 12% of children used CAM  ○  most people use these therapies as a compliment rather than an alternative to  Conventional care  ○  popularity of CAM  treatments seemed to plateau and about 2008  ● Natural products are the most commonly used of complementary Health approaches,  Followed by deep breathing, yoga, Chiropractic, meditation, massage, diet, homeopathy,  Progressive relaxation, and guided imagery  ● Manipulative and body based practices  ○  spinal manipulation  ○  Massage  ○  movement based therapy  ●  Acupuncture  ○  insertion of fine needles and two points along body meridians (energy channels)  ○ Helps reduce various aches and pains   ■ Back pain, labor pain, arthritis pain, menstrual cramps  ■  Headache  ■  tennis elbow  ■  carpal tunnel syndrome   ● Mind­body Therapies  ○  Meditation  ■  mindfulness meditation  ■  Transcendental Meditation  ○  breathing exercises  ■  deep breathing  ■  breath control  ○  Yoga  ○  Tai Chi  ●  Relaxation Techniques  ○ Progressive relaxation: muscle group by muscle group  ○ Guided imagery  ○ self hypnosis:  phrases or cues that trigger relaxation  ○ Biofeedback:  gain conscious control over relaxation response  ● Energy Medicine  ○  magnet therapy  ○  light therapy  ○  sound energy therapy  ○  Therapeutic Touch and Reiki  ○  Homeopathy  ■  system of medicine that treats illnesses with highly diluted substances  that, in larger doses, would cause similar symptoms   ● “Traditional” Medicine  ○ Traditional Chinese medicine  ■  limited amount of qi  ■  balance yin and yang  ○  ayurvedic medicine  ■  originated in India  ■  healing can be achieved through daily practices  ○  Curanderismo  ■  Latin American folk healing  ○  Native American healing  ■  focuses on spiritual healing  ●  Naturopathy  ○  system of medicine that relies on natural treatments to correct and balances and  allow the body to heal  ○   practitioners work with patients to address imbalances within the domains of  Wellness  ○  goal of treatment is to address the root of the illness rather than suppress  symptoms  ○  practitioners employ unique combination of modern Medical Science and natural  medicines   ● Holistic medicine   ○ Humans have an innate ability to heal  ○  all Dimensions of wellness must function optimally  ■  physical, environmental, mental, emotional, social, spiritual, and financial  ○ Patients are people not diseases  ○  correct the underlying cause of illness rather than symptom relief  ○  patients and practitioners are partners   ● Integrative Medicine  ○  evidence based medicine combined with alternative treatments  ○  goal is to utilize therapies that effectively improve health and well­being while  minimizing side effects  ○  increase options to prevent and manage illness  ○  advantageous for aging populations with complex conditions  ■  prevent illness and improve disease symptoms and quality of life  ■  reduces reliance on medication  ○  principles of Integrative Medicine  ■    patients and health practitioners work in a partnership  ■  practitioners consider all the domains Dimensions of Wellness when  evaluating patients  ■  Practitioners promote Healthy Lifestyles to prevent illness  ■  practitioners pick from both conventional and alternative treatments to  enhance benefit and reduce risk  ● The Placebo Effect  ○ Placebo effect: (noun) A beneficial effect produced by a placebo drug or  treatment, that cannot be attributed to the properties of the placebo itself, and  must therefore be due to the patient's belief in that treatment  ○ Placebo: (noun) A harmless pill, medicine, or procedure prescribed for  psychological benefit rather than for any real physiological effect       August 25    Stress  ● The Stress Response  ○ Homeostasis:​the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between  interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.  ○ Stress  ■ Non­specific response to stress  ■ Fight or flight  ○ Allostasis  ■ The ​ability to achieve stability through change or modification  ■ Allostatic Load: Cumulative effective of constantly adapting to stress  ○ Science­y Stuff  ■ Stress activates the limbic system  ■ Limbic System:  ● Hypothalamus: ​  The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating  your hunger, thirst, response to pain, levels of pleasure, sexual  satisfaction, anger and aggressive behavior, and more.  It also  regulates the functioning of the autonomic nervous system (see  below), which in turn means it regulates things like pulse, blood  pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional  circumstances.  ● Hippocampus: ​  The hippocampus consists of two “horns” that  curve back from the amygdala.  It appears to be very important in  converting things that are “in your mind” at the moment (in  short­term memory) into things that you will remember for the long  run (long­term memory).        ● Amygdala: ​  In complex vertebrates, including humans, the  amygdalae perform primary roles in the formation and storage of  memories associated with emotional events. Research indicates  that, during fear conditioning, sensory stimuli reach the basolateral  complexes of the amygdalae, particularly the lateral nuclei, where  they form associations with memories of the stimuli.  ○ Fight or Flight  ■ Sympathetic Nervous System: ​  Fight or flight; part of the autonomic  nervous system that contains chiefly adrenergic fibers and tends to  depress secretion, decrease the tone and contractility of smooth muscle,  and increase heart rate.  ■ Parasympathetic Nervous System: ​  Rest and restoration; part of the  involuntary nervous system that serves to slow the heart rate, increase  intestinal and glandular activity, and relax the sphincter muscles.  ○ Childhood Stress  ■ Fetus is programmed for survival in a challenging environment by the  mother’s level of cortisol  ■ The child with hyperactive stress response is at greater risk for chronic  disease  ■ Chronic stress raises likelihood of developing mental illness      ○ Stress & the Digestive System  ■ Digestion is controlled by the enteric nervous system, a system  composed of hundreds of millions of nerves that communicate with the  central nervous system. When stress activates the "flight or fight"  response in your central nervous system, digestion can shut down  because your central nervous system shuts down blood flow, affects the  contractions of your digestive muscles, and decreases secretions needed  for digestion. Stress can cause inflammation of the gastrointestinal  system, and make you more susceptible to infection.  (​­digestion/how­stress­affects­digestion/ )    ○ TED Talk: How to Make Stress Your Friend  (​ ​   ■ Oxytocin   ● Triggers you to crave social activity  ● Triggers you to “vent” instead of bottling it up  ● Natural anti­inflammatory  ● Aids in replenishment and reparation of heart tissue  ● When under stress, if help/social interaction is sought, oxytocin  aids in relieving stress and strengthening the healthy stress  response        ● GOAL SETTING  ○ What are you trying to change?  ○ What is your motivation?  ○ What is the goal? Do you need smaller sub­goals to reach it?  ○ What is most likely to get in the way? How will you solve that problem?  ○ Where will you begin? 


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