Early Humans and Violence
Early Humans and Violence Hist 1010
Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by TBA in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Early Humans and Violence The Dual Inheritance: Genetic propensities influence what cultural organisms learn. Humans are products of biological evolution and sociological evolution. Human Aggression: Is violence or aggression an adaptive strategy? Man, the Hunter - Theory - Did man’s need to hunt adapt us to aggression and war? - Violence becomes adaptive because of the need for hunting. - Discredited because archaeologists believe humans didn’t start hunting until later- not enough time for something sociological to become adaptive. Chimpanzee, the Hunter - Theory - Fight over territory - Behavior of collective violence between chimpanzee’s is also caused by their history of hunting - Coalitionary hunting- strategy; offensive hunting - Jane Goodall cut off an 8 year supply of bananas to chimpanzee’s so the larger group started killing off the smaller group. - Chimps use a natural strategy to defend a territory (females and territory) by using lethal warfare. - Conflict begins in response to ecological pressures. ** Natural aggression makes us good hunters, the need to hunt makes us naturally aggressive. Man, the Hunted - Early hominids were prey for about 4 million years before they started to hunt. - How Humans Avoided Being Lunch: o Live in large, cooperative groups o Versatile locomotion o Flexible social organization o More than one male in the social group o Males serve as sentinels o Carefully selected sleeping sites o Intelligence and “one-upmanship” Man, the Competitor - With rising populations, humans entered into competition with each other - Intergroup competition is about 12,000 years old - 1st advantage to fighting: bring more people - 2nd advantage: divide tasks; work together - 3rd advantage: group needs to learn to be mobile Altruistic Cooperation - Humans got tired of fighting so started evolving - Individual will take risks on behalf of another person Inclusive Fitness - Individuals within a group cooperate in order to promote the survival of their own genes via the survival of close relatives - The closer the relatives, the more cooperative. - Key desire is to establish a protective nest. - Cooperative populations will outcompete non- cooperative populations. - The possibility of violent conflict favored group behaviors, such as: o male solidarity o incorporate persons from other groups o risk calculation and threat assessment o greater social complexity and larger group size - Group cooperation is linked to lethal conflict. * - Modern humans use cooperation as a defense to larger groups. You can minimize risks by using threats of aggression, watchfulness, careful scouting Lethal violence takes place to reduce already low risks. 2 When group fissioning (when groups can separate) was an option, conflicts were rarer. Group size enhances group survival because it represents our ability to attack them. Evidence for Early Human Violence: Weapons and farming were created at different times at different parts of the world. Two earliest agriculture communities - Jericho- 8000 BCE o Built a wall poorly designed for defense; had a tower - Catalhoyuk- 7500-5700 BCE o Had a wall weirdly built; had to get on the rook to get on it - Haciliar- 5500-4800 BCE o Kept having to rebuild their wall stronger and stronger because it kept being torn down until it was eventually abandoned ** Animals were domesticated in the Middle East around 3500 BCE, before that there wasn’t much to steal so they didn’t need walls. In the near east, intensive local foraging emerged 13000 BCE and then agriculture emerge around 14000 BCE, while in Europe foraging emerged around 5000 BCE while agriculture emerged around 5500 BCE. Massacre of Talheim burial site had 34 bodies buried on top of each other, showing that the theory of early farmers wanting peace is not true. The Jebel Sahaba burial site in Sudan (between 12,000- 10,000 BCE) had 55 bodies, including women and children. Homosapians bean to migrate out of Africa around 125,000 years ago (2nd wave of human migration) and entered a new stage of human development (early development of language, larger groups, diversified weapons); they went to Europe around 55,000 years ago. The Atlatl 3 - New technology - Increases range, speed, and accuracy of the arm - Eventually eliminated the Neanderthals (they did crossbreed, however) Conflict and war does not dominate the archaeological record, but it does suffuse it 4
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