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Lecture 1 & 2

by: Vanshi Jhumkhawala

Lecture 1 & 2 PSYC 248

Vanshi Jhumkhawala

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About this Document

These notes cover the introduction and Chapter 3.
Learning and Memory (Lecture)
Dr. Sahakyan
Class Notes
short term memory, sensory memory
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanshi Jhumkhawala on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 248 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Dr. Sahakyan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory (Lecture) in Psychology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Intro (Ch 17)  Forgetting often works in our favor, even though its counterintuitive o We don’t want to hold on to all memory (embarrassing stuff) o Forgetting things that are wrong/not important  Clive Wearing had a destroyed hippocampus, lost all this memories o Can only keep 30 seconds on memory/experience at one type o There isn’t just one type of memory  Explicit memory an unconscious memory  Rajan Mahadevan hold record for memorizing 31,811 digits of pi o Subject for expert memory  Size of words shown (Rhodes & Castel) has no effect on how well you will memorize those words  Immediate experience  answer questions, state if they think they can recall it, recall answers to questions o Predictions  slower you are to respond, less likely you think you are to remember it o Actual  slower you are to respond, better you are at recalling it o Cramming is bad because reading over things faster doesn’t mean that you will remember it (same with larger/louder information)  Strategies for improving memory o Mnemonics: specific techniques t help encode, store, and retrieve items that may be difficult to remember  Keyword method  E.g. beurre = butter  Give meaning to meaningless info  Find familiar word (keyword) that sounds like beurre  Form image linking keyword to the meaning of the foreign word  Interactive imagery  Imagine something really strange to connect all of the things you need to remember  Method of loci  Memorize a known sequence of location  Create mental image of items you want to remember interactive with specific landmarks along your route (provides organizational structure)  Mentally walk from once location to the next, recalling the images and reconstructing the desired memory  Peg word method  Memorize peg word rhyme (one is a bun, two is a shoe, etc)  Form image connecting new item to peg word (using weird links)  Values: forces you to pay attn., encourage elaboration(adding meaning), creative effective retrieval cue/strategies, visual better than verbal  Exceptional Memories o Chess masters and novices had to study a board for 5 seconds and then place pieces correctly  Chess masters did better when the pieces were placed in positions were from real games  Chess masters underperformed, novices did the same as before when the pieces were placed in random positions o Rajan Mahadevan  Could memorize 75 digits at 1 digit per second  Pretty good memory for letters (still outperformed freshmen)  Does not outperform freshmen when trying to recall symbols  Binary constrained list experiment: get a string of 8s and 3s, and was not able to remember well because it is hard to convert that into a way he can remember (give groups of numbers a meaning (using large numbers)) Chapter 3- Transient forms of memory: sensory memory and STM  Hermann Ebbinghaus (father of memory) o Known bc he was the first to conduct scientific experiments in memory o Subject of his own experiments  Studied list of pronounceable but nonsense syllables o Discovering forgetting function (math formula)  Savings = difference between time needed to relearn originally perfectly learned list  Substantial drop after 19 minutes  Little loss between 2 and 31 days  Informational-Processing Model o Sensory store  short-term store  long-term store  If you’ve paid attn. to info, it will move from sensory store to short-term  If you keep thinking about the info, mem goes from short term to long term  When you are retrieving info, it goes from long term to short term  Sensory store and ST store has limited capacity, info only stays there for short time  Sensory memory = name given to the memory system that retains purely sensory info o Something that looks or sound like physical stimulus continues to be present for a brief moment even though the stimulus is no longer present (i.e. movies are made of pictures going really fast) o Sperling’s partial report procedure  People could report about 4-5 letters (out of 12), they were aware they saw more but didn’t know what it was (whole report)  Next part, you see the array of letters and after signal goes away, you are cued(immediately) to a row to report (partial report)  People were accurate in reporting whole row  All of the letters was in our memory, but by the time we start recalling all of them, they are gone  Short term memory o Digit Span Demo (how much memory you can hold in STM)  835, 239461, 627931896(? – didn’t remember all of it)  Usual memory span for verbal stimuli = 6-7  When you chunk stuff together in meaningful groups, you can broaden the limit of your STM o Brown Peterson Task  Task: remember a triagram (i.e. “C H J”)  Prevent rehearsal: count back by 3s from random number like 458 (not all types of tasks will be good at distracting from rehearsal) o Other factors affecting STM capacity  Length/difficulty of words  Language  People who speak languages in which digits have fewer syllables (monosyllabic) have better memory than those who speak languages where digits have more syllables o Recency/primacy effect  Primacy effect = you are more likely to remember words from the beginning of the list, attributed to retrieval from LTM  Recency effect = you are more likely to remember words from the end of the list, attributed to retrieval from STM  Serial position curve = the curve made from the probability you are to remember certain words on a list graphed against either position on the list (usually a U shape)  Baddeley & Hitch  immediate free recall, varied length of words on list  Recency effect was not affected, primacy effect  probability of recall is less for longer words  Glanzer & Cunitz  free recall that is immediate or after distractor activity  Preserves primacy effect, recency effect  the longer you wait, the less likely you are to recall the end of the list o Interference in memory for words  Proactive interference  4 lists of flowers had lower recall rate each time, 3 lists of flowers and 1 list of furniture  rate lowered until almost perfect recall for furniture  Working Memory


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