Lecture 1 & 2
Lecture 1 & 2 PSYC 248
Popular in Learning and Memory (Lecture)
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanshi Jhumkhawala on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 248 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Dr. Sahakyan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Learning and Memory (Lecture) in Psychology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Intro (Ch 17) Forgetting often works in our favor, even though its counterintuitive o We don’t want to hold on to all memory (embarrassing stuff) o Forgetting things that are wrong/not important Clive Wearing had a destroyed hippocampus, lost all this memories o Can only keep 30 seconds on memory/experience at one type o There isn’t just one type of memory Explicit memory an unconscious memory Rajan Mahadevan hold record for memorizing 31,811 digits of pi o Subject for expert memory Size of words shown (Rhodes & Castel) has no effect on how well you will memorize those words Immediate experience answer questions, state if they think they can recall it, recall answers to questions o Predictions slower you are to respond, less likely you think you are to remember it o Actual slower you are to respond, better you are at recalling it o Cramming is bad because reading over things faster doesn’t mean that you will remember it (same with larger/louder information) Strategies for improving memory o Mnemonics: specific techniques t help encode, store, and retrieve items that may be difficult to remember Keyword method E.g. beurre = butter Give meaning to meaningless info Find familiar word (keyword) that sounds like beurre Form image linking keyword to the meaning of the foreign word Interactive imagery Imagine something really strange to connect all of the things you need to remember Method of loci Memorize a known sequence of location Create mental image of items you want to remember interactive with specific landmarks along your route (provides organizational structure) Mentally walk from once location to the next, recalling the images and reconstructing the desired memory Peg word method Memorize peg word rhyme (one is a bun, two is a shoe, etc) Form image connecting new item to peg word (using weird links) Values: forces you to pay attn., encourage elaboration(adding meaning), creative effective retrieval cue/strategies, visual better than verbal Exceptional Memories o Chess masters and novices had to study a board for 5 seconds and then place pieces correctly Chess masters did better when the pieces were placed in positions were from real games Chess masters underperformed, novices did the same as before when the pieces were placed in random positions o Rajan Mahadevan Could memorize 75 digits at 1 digit per second Pretty good memory for letters (still outperformed freshmen) Does not outperform freshmen when trying to recall symbols Binary constrained list experiment: get a string of 8s and 3s, and was not able to remember well because it is hard to convert that into a way he can remember (give groups of numbers a meaning (using large numbers)) Chapter 3- Transient forms of memory: sensory memory and STM Hermann Ebbinghaus (father of memory) o Known bc he was the first to conduct scientific experiments in memory o Subject of his own experiments Studied list of pronounceable but nonsense syllables o Discovering forgetting function (math formula) Savings = difference between time needed to relearn originally perfectly learned list Substantial drop after 19 minutes Little loss between 2 and 31 days Informational-Processing Model o Sensory store short-term store long-term store If you’ve paid attn. to info, it will move from sensory store to short-term If you keep thinking about the info, mem goes from short term to long term When you are retrieving info, it goes from long term to short term Sensory store and ST store has limited capacity, info only stays there for short time Sensory memory = name given to the memory system that retains purely sensory info o Something that looks or sound like physical stimulus continues to be present for a brief moment even though the stimulus is no longer present (i.e. movies are made of pictures going really fast) o Sperling’s partial report procedure People could report about 4-5 letters (out of 12), they were aware they saw more but didn’t know what it was (whole report) Next part, you see the array of letters and after signal goes away, you are cued(immediately) to a row to report (partial report) People were accurate in reporting whole row All of the letters was in our memory, but by the time we start recalling all of them, they are gone Short term memory o Digit Span Demo (how much memory you can hold in STM) 835, 239461, 627931896(? – didn’t remember all of it) Usual memory span for verbal stimuli = 6-7 When you chunk stuff together in meaningful groups, you can broaden the limit of your STM o Brown Peterson Task Task: remember a triagram (i.e. “C H J”) Prevent rehearsal: count back by 3s from random number like 458 (not all types of tasks will be good at distracting from rehearsal) o Other factors affecting STM capacity Length/difficulty of words Language People who speak languages in which digits have fewer syllables (monosyllabic) have better memory than those who speak languages where digits have more syllables o Recency/primacy effect Primacy effect = you are more likely to remember words from the beginning of the list, attributed to retrieval from LTM Recency effect = you are more likely to remember words from the end of the list, attributed to retrieval from STM Serial position curve = the curve made from the probability you are to remember certain words on a list graphed against either position on the list (usually a U shape) Baddeley & Hitch immediate free recall, varied length of words on list Recency effect was not affected, primacy effect probability of recall is less for longer words Glanzer & Cunitz free recall that is immediate or after distractor activity Preserves primacy effect, recency effect the longer you wait, the less likely you are to recall the end of the list o Interference in memory for words Proactive interference 4 lists of flowers had lower recall rate each time, 3 lists of flowers and 1 list of furniture rate lowered until almost perfect recall for furniture Working Memory
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