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A&P 2 Lecture Notes - Chapter 18: Lecture 1

by: M.G

A&P 2 Lecture Notes - Chapter 18: Lecture 1 BIOL 2458

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > Biology > BIOL 2458 > A P 2 Lecture Notes Chapter 18 Lecture 1
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These notes go over what was discussed in lecture and include tips for success and a glossary at the end of the notes
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Timothy Henry
Class Notes




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by M.G on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2458 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Timothy Henry in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Lecture One   Introduction and The Endocrine System  8/25/2016    Lecture One  Overview of Important Class Details  Experience in Other Courses and Study Tips  Lecture Notes    Overview of Important Class Details  Instructor: Dr. Timothy Henry  Classroom: Nedderman Hall 100    Main things to know:  ● You ​must​ buy the lab manual  ○ Tip: Find someone taking A&P 1 and split the cost!  ● Textbook is optional  ○ Lab should have copies of the textbook if you cannot afford one  ● Attending every lecture is in your best interest  ​ ● Dr. Henry i ​ s utilizing Echo this semester. Echo is a video recording system that records  each lecture and saves them to blackboard for future review.  Experience in Other Courses and Study Tips  I took Dr. Henry for A&P 1 and the Martini study guide he recommends will help you  immensely in his course. You can find the study guide for free ​here​.    Tips for Success:  ​ ● Read the chapter b ​ efore class. At minimum, make a mini glossary of terms and their  meanings so you won’t be lost in lecture.  ● Print off the PowerPoint and make notes on them. Dr. Henry will not test over material he  hasn’t talked about, so coming prepared and knowing the PowerPoint will help you in the  long run.  ​ ○ Extra: Take the PowerPoint slides and delete a few words from each slide to  make yourself a ‘Fill­In­The­Blank’ lecture note sheet. This will help you to be  more alert and aware in class as you fill out your notes.  ● After class, copy your lecture notes by hand into a word document or into another  notebook. Doing so will help you to retain the information you have learned.  ● Finally, go over the information you’ve learned by filling in any gaps with the material in  your textbook.   ● Don’t forget to review! Using the Martini Study Guide once a day for each chapter will  help you retain any information you have trouble with.  ○ Got a question wrong? Take out a flashcard and write the whole question out.  Then, mark the question you got wrong and your answer so that you can review  your textbook and notes to find out where you went wrong  Lecture Notes  Slide stopped at: ​ #54    Nervous and Endocrine Systems  ● The nervous and endocrine systems work together to coordinate the function of the body  ● Hormones are produced by endocrine glands  ○ Hormones are distributed by the blood and can affect large portions of the body.   ○ It takes longer for a hormone to take effect, but once it does take effect, the  effect’s of the hormone last longer than that of the nervous system’s  neurotransmitters.  Glands  ● There are two main types of glands  ○ Endocrine  ■ Endo = inside  ■ Endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their products(hormones)  into interstitial fluid. These products then diffuse into blood ­ specifically,  capillaries.  ■ Secretion moves material from one place to another in an organism, but it  doesn’t leave the body  ● Like a secret ­ it can move from one person to another in a group  ​ as long as it doesn’t ​ eave the group  ■ Organs and tissues can also be endocrine glands    ○ Exocrine  ■ Exo = outside  ​ ​ ● Think exorcism ­ it gets something out of the body  ■ Exocrine glands remove material from an organism via excretion. An  example would be sweat.  Endocrine Glands  ● Pituitary Gland  ○ Also known as the hypophysis  ○ Consists of an anterior and posterior portion  ● Thyroid Gland  ○ Elevates metabolism and Ca​  levels  ● Heart  ○ Stress on the heart causes a release of hormones in a negative feedback loop    Hormone Activity  ● Hormones only affect specific (think horm​one​, specific) target tissues with the specific  receptors needed to receive those hormones.   ○ These receptors are constantly being made and destroyed through processes meant  to maintain homeostasis in the body  ■ Down­regulation:​ A decrease in receptors due to an excess of hormone in  the body  ■ Up­regulation:​ An increase in receptors due to a shortage of hormone in  the body  ● Type 2 diabetes is associated with receptor issues    Hormone Types  ● There are two types of hormones:  ○ Circulating hormones  ■ Hormones that circulate throughout the body via the bloodstream  ○ Local hormones  ■ Hormones that act locally within a certain area. There are two  types of local hormones  ● Paracrine hormones  ○ These hormones act on cells neighboring the cell  that released the hormone  ● Autocrine hormones  ○ These hormones act on the same cell that secreted  them.   Chemical Classes of Hormones  ● Lipid/fat soluble  ○ These hormones pass easily through cell membranes.   ○ Another term for these hormones are ​non­polar hormones  ○ These hormones include  ■ Thyroid hormones  ■ Steroid hormones  ■ Small nonpolar molecules  ● CO​ ,2​​ 2​etc. (While some molecules may seem polar, they  actually are not due to VESPR theory)  ○ Lipid soluble hormones can change DNA, which is why fats and other lipid  soluble molecules can be dangerous to a person’s health.   ● Water soluble   ○ These hormones need help to pass the cell membrane.   ■ A receptor on the membrane is required, as well as a protein to carry the  hormone across.   Pituitary Gland  ● Anterior pituitary  ○ Hormones in the anterior pituitary have to be told when to act (by releasing  hormones) or when not to act (by inhibition hormones)  Anterior Pituitary Cells  ● Soma = Body  ● Thyro = Thyroid  ● Gonads = Reproductive organs  ● Lacto = mammary, lactation  ● Cortico = steroids  ○ Melanocyte­stimulating hormone  ■ Deals with melanin  Disorders   ● Dwarfism  ○ Caused by a lack of hGH  ● Gigantism  ○ Caused by an excess of hGH  ○ Can sometimes be caused by a tumor  ● Slide 31  ○ hGH in excess after puberty can cause abnormal growth of soft tissue  ● Cushing’s Syndrome  ○ Caused by too much of one of the below  ■ CRH  ■ ACTH  ■ Cortisol  ○ Usually due to a hypothalamus or anterior pituitary problem  ● Addison’s Disease  ○ Caused by too little of one of the below  ■ CRH  ■ ACTH  ■ Cortisol        Glossary  ● Hormone:​ A mediator molecule released in one part of the body but regulates the  cellular activity in other parts of the body  ● Exocrine glands: ​Glands that secrete their products (hormone) into ducts that carry the  secretions into body cavities, organ lumens, or the body’s outer surface  ● Endocrine glands​: Glands that secrete their products into the interstitial fluid  surrounding the secretory cells (cells that secreted the hormone) rather than into ducts   ● Endocrinology: ​The science of the structure and function of the endocrine glands and the  diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the endocrine system  ● Down­regulation: ​A phenomenon that occurs when excess hormone in the body causes  the number of cell receptors in the body to decrease  ● Up­regulation:​ A phenomenon that occurs when a shortage of hormone in the body  causes the number of cell receptors in the body to increase  ● Circulating hormones:​ Hormones that pass into the bloodstream  ● Local hormones: ​Hormones that stay in a small area around the cell that secreted them  ● Paracrine hormones:​ Local hormones that act on neighboring cells  ● Autocrine hormones:​ Hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them  ● Steroid hormones:​ Hormones derived from cholesterol  ● Thyroid hormones:​ Hormones synthesized by the attachment of iodine to tyrosine. T​   3 has 3 iodine molecules, while T​ 4​as 4 iodine molecules.  ● Amine hormones:​ Hormones synthesized by removing a CO​  molecule a2​ other  modifications to certain amino acids. They are called amines because they retain the  ­NH​    ● Peptide hormones:​ Hormones consisting of amino acid polymers  ● Glycoprotein hormones: ​Protein hormones with an attached carbohydrate group.   ● First messenger: ​The hormone that causes the production of a second messenger  ● Protein kinase:​ An enzyme that adds a phosphate group to other cellular proteins  ● Hyperglycemia: ​An abnormally low blood glucose concentration  ● Hypoglycemia: ​An abnormally high blood glucose concentration  ● Ovulation: ​ The release of a secondary oocyte by an ovary  ● Hypothalamohypophyseal tract:​ A tract that begins in the hypothalamus and ends near  the blood capillaries in the posterior pituitary gland  ● Basal metabolic rate: ​The rate of oxygen consumption under normal (or basal)  conditions  ● Calorigenic effect: ​The more ATP produced and used, the more the body temperature  rises   


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