HIST 101: Chapter 1 Notes
HIST 101: Chapter 1 Notes HIST 101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalie Lanik on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 101 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Diane Margolf in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization, Modern in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Chapter 1: Defining History and Civilization Mesopotamia meaning the land “between two rivers” History of the Persian Wars by Greek scholar Herodotus of Halicarnassus o This text focused on the war’s origins & the impact the war had on the Greeks and Persians Historians try to focus on the problem of change and continuity over time o Modern historians look at the bigger picture: studying daily lives of people who have played a role in shaping important past events Prehistory: is the period in time when there were no written records; info about this era of time comes from the archeological record o Without written records some archeological discoveries remain unclear Primary Source: A source of information (such as a document) that was created during the historical period that is being mentioned History = what we know + what it means Civilization—the Latin term civitas means city or community o –civis meaning citizen or subject Traditional historian definition of a civilization includes: o Urban settlements, complex political & legal systems, specialization of labor & economic activities, social hierarchies, religious resources, scientific resources, artistic resources, and the use of a writing system for communication o EX of a civilization: Mesopotamia and Egypt o If these features are not included it is called a community EX of a community: Greeks and romans Defined themselves instead by common features such as a shared language or religious traditions Chapter 1: Calendars and Chronology Most calendars are based on solar and lunar cycles The Georgian Calendar: o After Pope Gregory XIII o Was an attempt to align the holidays within the calendar as well as significant Christian holy days o Endorsed the use of the birth of Christ as a dividing line in calculating time HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion The practice of this method in time calculation dates back to the 6 century B.C. = Before Christ A.D. Anno Domini (The year of the lord) Calendars in the Christian community were based off of the Julian Calendar o After Julius Caesar Historians also commonly use (for time calculation) o B.C.E. = Before the common era o C.E. = Common era o The abbreviation “c.” is used to give an unknown or approximate date Of the Latin word “circa” meaning “about” or “around” Chapter 1: Prehistory and the Paleolithic Age Paleolithic Age shows early human activity o AKA The Old Stone Age Homo sapiens first emerged during this era o Latin meaning—“wise man” o They migrated from Africa into the Near East, Asia, & Europe Paleolithic people were hunter-gatherers o Traveled in groups of 20-30 o Men hunted animals & women gathered food The fact that both women and men were responsible for providing food insists a level of equality among genders o Carved sculptors have been found and thought to have some connection to fertility o Wall paintings in Spain and France depict different animals Chapter 1: The Neolithic Revolution and the rise of towns and villages The Neolithic Revolution describes significant changes of human life and society from the Paleolithic age o Neolithic Rev. meaning “New Stone Age” (10,000 BC – 3,000 BC) The revolution occurred over a vast amount of time and in many different locations but it is mainly recognized for the transformation of hunter-gatherers to farmers and town dwellers HIST101: Western Civilization from Antiquity to the Age of Expansion Agriculture emerged during this time and the domestication of animals for food and produce became popular amongst these towns These towns were able to harvest consistent amounts of food and furthermore flourish into sustainable communities o This was especially true in the Fertile Crescent which stretched form the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea amongst the Euphrates and Tigris rivers Environmental contribution toward the Neolithic Rev. o Climate became more mild and wet after the last stone age o This caused animals to move away from hunting grounds and to colder areas Raw materials were able to be transformed into manufactured goods (i.e. textiles) Some villages developed into towns o A town by definition included a high concentration of people who engage in craft and trade and have a complex government Jericho and Çatalhöyük o Some of the oldest towns of this period in time o Irrigation systems, mud-brick houses were often prevalent here o Houses sometimes built close together to allow citizens to walk across the roofs rather than using streets or sidewalks