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Ecology Week 2 Class notes

by: Naomi Hampton

Ecology Week 2 Class notes BIOL 3060

Marketplace > Auburn University > Ecology > BIOL 3060 > Ecology Week 2 Class notes
Naomi Hampton

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About this Document

These notes cover climate change and the beginning portions about biomes.
Principles of Ecology
Dr. John Feminella
Class Notes
Ecology, climate change, biomes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi Hampton on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3060 at Auburn University taught by Dr. John Feminella in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Principles of Ecology in Ecology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
BIOL 3060 Week 2 8/23/16  Climate: o Time-average Physical conditions for organisms o Meteorological conditions (=abiotic environment, constraints)  Elements of Climate o Sun  insolation  Light energy fuels photosynthesis  temperature: measure of average kinetic energy in a system  Biosphere (whole Earth)  Light & temp act as gradient across earth (heat starts at equator and spreads to poles)  Why Light is Greater at the Equator  Direct angle  Less atmosphere filtering of light o Atmosphere consists of gases & particles  Greenhouse Effect: natural or accelerated retention of heat  Radiation  Reflection  Retention  CO 2cts as window letting heat in but not out  Heat from atmosphere from radiation is reflected off Earth but stays in atmosphere due to particles and gases  Positive Feedback of Warming Climate (Ice-Albedo Effect) o Solar inputincreased CO wa2mer temperaturesdecreased snow/icedecreased Albedo(reflection)warmer temperatures o Wind & Water  Wind: air movements  Hot air rises, moves upward towards poles, cools down and sinks, warms back up (cyclic pattern)  Hot air holds more moisture than cooler air  Cool air condenses, forms clouds, then releases collected moisture as rain after it reaches threshold  Warm air risingcarrying moisturerisingcool & condenseprecipitation  Coriolis effect: force of earth spinning on axis sends air moving generally west to east  Law of energy conservation o Westerly wind: toward poles, carry warm moist air that is deflected to the east Type of Air Source Moves Deflects Wind Condition Westerly Warm, moist Equator Toward To east winds poles Trade winds Cool, dry Poles Toward To west equator  5 Ecological Factors o Light o Temperature o Precipitation (snow=<0degrees C; rain=>0degrees C) o Humidity o Meteorological disturbances (ex: tropical storms) 8/25/16  Solar-driven air circulation o Sun heats air at equator o Moisture in ascending air condenses, forming louds o Some ascending air flows north, some flows south o Warm air rises o Dry air flowing over land absorbs moisture o Heavy rains fall o Coriolis effect causes predominant west/east winds o Mid-latitude cell=ferrel cell o Tropical cell=Hadley cell o Westerlies o Northeasterly-southeasterly trade winds  Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) o Equatorial (“doldrums”) o Convergence of NE and SE trade winds causing unpredictable weather o Air warmed & humidified, deflected northeast and southeast o Predominant ocean currents move in direction of westerlies  Topographic Rainfall Patterns o Warm moist air flows east from Pacific ocean o Air rises, cools, wrings out moisture on west side of Rocky mtns o Air flows over mountains o Air flows down, warms up, light rain on east side of Rocky mtns o Air is warm and dry upon reaching plains  Continental Deficit Rainfall Patterns o U.S. Drought Monitor  Seasonality o Northern Hemisphere o Day length:  Longest EnvironmentalGradient Shortest o Temp:  Highest Lowest  Microclimate Canopy Reflectance/radiation Temp/humidity Above High Hot, dry Below Low Cool, humid  Biomes of the World o Biomes: large zones containing distinctive vegetation that reflect variation in climate o Climate-Biome Relationship  o Tundra  Arctic (higher latitudes)  Short summers, long winters  Alaska, Scandinavia, Russia  Lichens, mosses, sedges, no trees  Extremely short growing season  Caribou, arctic fox, gyrfalcon o Boreal Forest  Moderate to high latitudes  Cold, dry winters, warm summers  Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, Northern Asia  Coniferous vegetation-spruce, firs, larch  Short growing season  Low-humidity-high desiccation  White fir, snowshoe hare o Temperate Forest  Moderate latitudes  Cold winter, warm summer  Eastern North America, Europe, Asia  Deciduous vegetation-temperate deciduous forest  Mixed woodlands  Oak-hickory forests  Oak woodlands  Uniform annual precipitation  Moderately long growing season


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