Chapter 1 Notes
Chapter 1 Notes psych 3404
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by olivia maeder on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 3404 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Ann Blumer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
1 PSYC 3404—Developmental PsychologyChapter 1 Study Guide Terms to know: Development: studies that patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior throughout the lifespan Lifespan perspective: development throughout entirety of one’s life, from the time of conception till death Developmental milestone: when do you expect a person can do something, same order for most kids Cohort: a group of people born around the same time in the same general geographical area Generation: defined by years of birth, usually about 2025 years or roughly the time it takes a person to grow up and have children Agegraded influences: biological and environmental influences on individuals in a particular age group Historygraded influences: biological and environmental influences associated with a particular historical moment Nonnormative life events: specific to an individual – events that occur during a person’s life at a time when such events don’t happen to most people Contextual influences: events or factors that influence development Chronological age: age in one’s years since birth Biological age: age in one’s age in terms of biological health, including capacities of one’s vital organs Psychological age: age refers to one’s adaptive (functional) abilities compared to others of the same chronological age Naturalistic observation: a type of correlation study in which some naturally occurring behavior is observed without intervention in the situation Case study: studies that involve extensive, indepth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals Physiological measurements: EEG, CAT, fMRI scans, measure electoral activity, blood flow, heart rate etc. Crosssectional study: research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time Longitudinal study: research in which the behavior of one or more participants in a study is measured as they age 2 Sequential study: research in which the researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time Questions: 1. What did developmentalists believe about human development prior to adopting the lifespan perspective? The little or no change occurred during most of adulthood until the declines of old age Personality was assumed to be fixed by late adolescence Little consideration given to transitions and psychosocial challenges of adult hood (until Erikson) 2. What two fields of study combined to give us today’s developmental psychology? Child development: the study of childhood and teen years Gerontology: the study of aging 3. What contribution did Charles Darwin make to the field of development? Published papers of observations of his children in 1870 4. What are the three dimensions/processes involved in development? Give an example of how they might interact in a person’s development. Physical – brain, mouth, senses Cognitive understand, meaning Psychosocial – relationships, modeling, reinforcements 5. Why is it important to be aware of developmental milestones, if you are a parent or teacher or otherwise work with children? To know when you should expect someone can do something, typical milestones are the same for MOST kids and are universal. 6. List some environmental factors that may have a major influence on a person’s development. Family of origin Peers Culture Life events and transistions 7. What are the three major dimensions of development? Give an example of what is included in each dimension. Biological Cognitive Socioemotional 8. How might each of the 3 dimensions of development interact in influencing development? Language development requires: o Development of brain pathways (speaking and understanding) 3 o Cognitive ability o Physical/muscular development (tongue, mouth, lips) o Social relationships (modeling, reinforcement) 9. What is meant by the statement that development is multidirectional? Not just growth in functioning but also loss of functioning 10. What is meant by the statement that development is contextual? Individual context occurs in some context: o Family o Place o Culture o Time period Social class Race Gender As we change the world around us changes Interactions with others changes how we develop 11. What are three different types of contextual influences on development? Historygraded: biological and environmental influences associated with historical moment. Ex: living in NYC during 9/11 Agegraded: biological and environmental influences associated with a particular age group. Ex: puberty Nonnormative: specific to individual, when events do not normally happen to most people Ex. Loosing parent as a child 12. Be able to match the 8 periods of development with the typical age ranges specified for each. Prenatal: conception to birth Infancy/Toddlerhood: birth to age 3 Preschool: age 36 Middle childhood: age 612 Adolescence: age 1220 Young adulthood: age 2040 Middle adulthood: age 4060 Late adulthood: age 60 to death 13. Why is there variation in the specific age ranges of people in each of the 8 different periods of development? Characterized by certain features: physically, cognitively, and socioemotionally 14. Suppose that a developmental researcher wants to gather data about a number of topics. For each of the following topics, what is a research method that might be used? I am NOT looking for an answer like, “Go to the library,” but rather, consider direct research methods. (answers to this are at the end of the study guide) 4 a. What is the average IQ of 8year olds in the US? Standardized test for IQ b. Do eightyear olds tend to spend more of their playtime with samesex friends or oppositesex friends, or is there no difference? Naturalistic Observation c. What do parents consider to be the biggest challenge facing their eightyear old children? Interview or questionnaire d. How much change is there in height and weight, strength, and coordination in the eighth year of life? Physiological measurements e. Studying an eightyear old boy named Jack in depth, by examining his daytoday activities, his family structure, his religious beliefs, his strengths and challenges, his relationships with peers, his schooling, etc. Case Study 15. What are some drawbacks of doing a longitudinal research study? Takes years to complete Expensive Can loose participants 16. What might be some challenges of conducting a research study that includes people of different ages or developmental stages, such as a crosssectional study? Cohort effects Mental age Assumes age is the issue Many uncontrollable issues 17. Why might a sequential study provide better information about the differences between different groups than a longitudinal or crosssectional study? Can determine what changes are age change (period of time) and what are age difference (different age with different abilities) 18. Describe a situation in which a woman’s chronological age could be greater than her biological age. Yes, I know, her CA could be 69 and her BA is 50…. But what does that mean? Chronological age: age in years since birth Biological age: age in terms of health, including capacities of vital organs o She is in extraordinary physical shape 19. Give an example of how psychological age could be less than chronological age. Psychological age: age refers to ones adaptive mental abilities compared to others of same chronological age o Mental age refers to child’s level of intellectual functioning, may be less compared to other children 20. T/F: Cohorts and generations are the same thing. Explain your answer. FALSE – cohorts are as long as the event defines it where as generations are defined by years of birth usually about 20. 21. Why is awareness of someone’s cohort of importance in doing developmental research? 5 Cohorts are highly influences by external events, these events contribute to the development in similar ways, they effect people’s behavior and tend to be lifelong 22. How is the Stage vs Continuity debate resolved by developmentalists: what do they tend to think is the best way to think about these issues? Staged and continuous both correct o Continuous process that never stops, there are stages to growth that unfold at predictable times. o Stages is easier to organize or group information and then compare. 23. What’s meant by a selfreport type of questionnaire? Respondents read the question and select a response by themselves without research interaction.
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