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Week 1 - Introduction and Healthy Diets

by: rgslc8

Week 1 - Introduction and Healthy Diets Nutr 1020

Marketplace > University of Utah > Nutrition > Nutr 1020 > Week 1 Introduction and Healthy Diets
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August 23 - These notes cover the different nutrients, their functions, recommended amounts, and sources. Calories and how to calorie calculation is also includes. August 25 - These notes cove...
Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health
Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham
Class Notes
nutrition, diet, disease, MyPlate, calorie, Calories, minerals, Vitamins, fat, protein, Carbohydrates, Water, Calculating, healthy




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by rgslc8 on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutr 1020 at University of Utah taught by Anandh Babu Pon Velayutham in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Scientific Foundations of Nutrition and Health in Nutrition at University of Utah.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Nutrition Overview --- August 23 Interesting Facts:  We eat 70,000 meals within our lifetime. That equals 60,000 tons of food and totals 4 years of eating.  Major health problems can be avoided by a healthy diet, moderate calorie intake, and adequate physical activity.  Top leading causes of death in the United States are smoking, obesity, and alcohol abuse.  Too much nutrients or a lack of nutrients can lead to chronic diseases.  Food flavor, texture, and appearance are the primary influence on our food choices. o In reality, it should be health and nutrition concerns. Hunger Games  Hunger: biological drive to eat. o Controlled by internal body mechanism. o Controlled by lateral hypothalamus.  Appetite: psychological drive to eat. o Controlled by external food choice mechanisms  Example: Hearing popcorn popping, seeing a tempting dessert.  Satiety: a feeling of satisfaction. o Temporarily halts our need to eat. o Controlled by ventromedial hypothalamus. “Normal eating” provides a sense of calm, pleasure, and satisfaction. Definition of Nutrition: science that links food to health and disease.  Includes the processes by which the human ingests, digests, absorbs, transports, and excretes food substances. Nutrients  Obtained from foods that are vital for growth and maintenance of a healthy body.  3 characteristics of essential nutrients: o At least of specific biological function o Removal leads to decline in certain biological function o Replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet will restore the normal biological function Macronutrients:  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Water Micronutrients:  Vitamins  Minerals Nutrition Overview --- August 23 Functions: 1. Provide energy: most carbs, proteins, and fats 2. Body builders: promote growth, development, and maintenance: proteins, fats, water, some vitamins and minerals. 3. Regulators: promote body processes. Proteins, water, some fats, and vitamins and minerals. Carbohydrates  Energy providers  Glucose is the major energy source for most cells  Two types: simple and complex o Simple: composed of 1 or 2 sugars  Ex. Glucose and Sucrose(Fructose + Glucose) o Complex: composed of hundreds of glucose  Ex. Starch and Cellulose Proteins Made up of 20 amino acids linked together o 9 essential and 11 non-essential Sources: Poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, beans, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds Functions: o Hormone regulators o Transporting o Energy o Mechanical Support o Catalyze Biochemical Reactions o Movement Lipids Fats: Lipids solid at room temperature Oils: Lipids liquid at room temperature Sources: Poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, nuts, seeds, olive oil, fish oil. Functions: o Insulation and protection o Main form of energy storage o Repair of vital parts o Membrane lipids o Fat soluble vitamins Water We need 3 Liters or 13 Cups of water per day Signs of dehydration include thirst and yellow urine Functions: o Prevents constipation o Carries nutrients and oxygen to the cells o Lubricates joints Nutrition Overview --- August 23 o Moistens tissues o Regulates body tissues Vitamins Produce no calories 13 total Helps to release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Water Soluble: B (1,2,3,5,6,7,9,12) C o Sources:  fruits and vegetables o Functions:  To release energy from food  To build proteins and cells  To synthesize collagen Fat Soluble: A,D,E,K o Sources:  Dairy products, seeds, nuts, oils, vegetables o Functions:  Bone formation  Visions  Antioxidants Minerals  Produce no calories  Functions: o Nervous system functioning o Water balance o Structural system o Cellular processes  16 total  Major Minerals: Ca, Cl, Mg, P, Na, S, K o Need more than 100 mg/day o Sources: dairy products, vegetables, fruits  Trace Elements: Ch, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn o Need less than 100 mg/day o Meat, poultry, fish, nuts, vegetables, fruits Calories Unit of measurement of energy/heat Amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 Kg of water by 1 degree Celsius. Carbohydrates: 4 Kcal/g Fats: 9 Kcal/g Proteins: 4 Kcal/g Alcohol: 7 Kcal/g Calculating Calories Nutrition Overview --- August 23 Calories are easy to eat, and hard to burn. Formula: Grams x Kcal/g = Total Kcals Carbohydrates 45 grams x 4 = 180 Kcal Fats 4.5 grams x 9 = 41 Kcal Proteins28.5 grams x 4 = 114 Kcal Total = 335 Kcal Designing a Healthy Diet and Dietary Recommendations --- August 25 Outline:  How do we know what we know about nutrition?  Healthy diet- why is it important?  Menu Planning Tool How do we know what we know about nutrition?  Research o Scientific Method  Observation, hypothesis, experiments, results reported in publication, follow-up experiments, hypothesis is accepted or rejected  If hypothesis is rejected, new one must be created o Example:  Observation: Diabetes is more common in obese population  Hypothesis: Diabetes leads to type 2 diabetes  Results reported in publication: Link between diabetes and obesity  Types of Experiments o Laboratory Animals  Obese mice vs. healthy mice o Human studies  Adipose cells expanding in obese people to store more fat  Enlarges fat cells in obesity are less sensitive to glucose metabolism o Observation by Physician o Epidemiological studies  Diabetes more common in obese populations o Case control studies Healthy Diet: Why is it important?  Heart disease, cancer, stroke, diabetes, hypertension: all possible related to diet and physical activity o Leading causes of death related to nutrition! o 69% of medical deaths related to nutrition  Unhealthy diet o Excess intake of:  Calories, saturated fat, cholesterol, salt, trans fat, alcohol, and sugar  Combined with physical inactivity causes death  1,000 nutrition related deaths per day  Energy balance o Energy intake (calories consumed) = energy expenditure (calories burned by metabolism and physical activity)  Energy imbalance: fluctuations in body weight and health  Important terms: o Nutrient density: describes nutrient/calorie content of food. Provide large amount of nutrients for a relatively small amount of calories  Foods: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low fat milk  Less nutrient dense foods: high in fats, sugars, cholesterol, salt and alcohol o Empty calories: Foods that contain lots of calories but offer low nutritional value.  Example: SoFAS – Solid Fats and Added Sugars  Cakes, fries, chips, crackers, etc. o Functional foods: Foods rich in phytochemicals  Provides health benefits beyond those supplied by the traditional nutrients  Ex. Blueberries contain anthocyanins  “More colorful the food on your plate, the greater the content of nutrients and phytochemicals.”  Eat your rainbow My Plate  A Menu-Planning tool  “Federal Government’s food icon”  To make healthier food choices and building a healthy plate at meal times. o 50% plate should be fruits/vegetables o 25% plates should be grains, with a focus on whole grains o 25% plate should be protein o Dairy  Enjoy your food, but avoid oversized portions  Menu Planning with My Plate o Each food is rich in some nutrients but deficient in other nutrients o Each food group makes an important contribution to nutritional intake o Food Philosophy: variety, balance, and moderation: Foundation of a healthy diet 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans  Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight  Consume more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat free and low fat dairy products, and seafood.  Consume fewer foods with sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sugars, and refined grains.  Dietary supplements cannot and should not replace a healthy diet Physical Activity guidelines  Adults: Moderate/intense physical activity o 150 min/week  Children and adolescents physical activity o 60 min/day States of Nutritional Health  Undernutrition: nutrition intake does not meet nutrient needs  Overnutrition: prolonged consumption of more nutrients than the body needs  Desirable nutrition: body tissues have enough nutrients Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)  Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) : the dietary intake level is sufficient enough to meet the nutrient requirements  Adequate Intake (ID) : A recommended intake value – approximations of needed nutrient intake.  Upper Level: up to this level, the nutrient is safe, such as sodium.


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