History 261 Week one
History 261 Week one HIST 261
Popular in The United States Since 1865
Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Fallis on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 261 at Northern Illinois University taught by Professor Beatrix Hoffman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see The United States Since 1865 in History at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Slavery, Session, and Civil War (an overview) Thursday, August 25, 2016 2:14 PM Political Parties in 1865 Two party system similar today in the sense that it was Republicans Vs. Democrats Today's Republicans and Democrats are nothing like they were in 1865 o "Political realignment" 1865 Republicans o Party of the North/Union o "Liberal/ progressive" o Industrial/ business based economy o Supports growth of national government o Believes slavery is a drag on economic growth 1865 Democrats o Party of the South/Confederacy o "conservatives" o Agriculture based economy o Big supporter of states’ rights* *States’ rights: rights and powers held by state governments instead of the federal one Ex: legalization of marijuana currently Slavery Slavery is the treatment of people as property. Literally the ownership of another person. Why did it last so long? o Plantation owners searching for cheap labor o America became semi economically dependent on it. Even the North unknowingly did because of their need for cotton for their textile mills. o Eventually became a cultural thing in the south o Partially started because there was a small labor for American agriculture o Fear of change and how to incorporate this large amount of peoples into the workforce and even society People were even worried former slaves would rebel and seek revenge on former owners o Poor white southerners (who made up the majority of white southerners) worried about taking a step down in the class system Slavery and U.S. wealth o 2/3 of the world cotton production was supplied by the U.S. slaves o 1860's eight wealthiest states (ranked off of the wealth of white men) South Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, Connecticut, Alabama, Florida, Texas All were slave states except Connecticut, who was reach due to textile mills which depended on cotton North vs. South issues Political Power o Economic competition between slaves and poor white southerners o Poor white southerners wanting more representation so they could get states’ rights Lincoln Declared Was Because of Slavery? Lincoln, while he did want to see an end to it, did not declare war on the Confederacy in a way to in slavery The reason for the Civil War was to reunite the Union (boo secession) Slavery latter became a back when the Union was looking for a way to gain more support for the war effort o Fighting for an end to slavery became more of a war measure Lincoln did sign the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 (though it wasn't actually enforceable until 1865) o Showed weakness for the South o Loss of workers for South o Direct blow and cause of great disruption for war effort o Only abolished slavery in the Confederacy (sorry slaves in boarder states) Not really enforceable, but did make a big political statement Post- Civil War North doesn't want slavery, but is still a racist place o Slaves not given equal pay in Union army and in work in general 2.5% of U.S. population dies in war (that would be 7 million for today's population) Freedmen's Bureau helps former slaves find their families President Johnson and U.S. government needs to find a way to restart the Southern economy that was destroyed Plantations without labor force hire former slaves to work their land o Slaves who have little or no school, no money or homes take offers o This was tenant farming* and was low key slavery because workers would be in so much debt they would be stuck working the land for generation trying to pay off debt *When land owners gave their land to workers in exchange for some (*cough, cough* most) of their capital
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