Chemistry in the Body
Chemistry in the Body 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeni Erickson on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 80197 - BIOL 2220 - 001 at Clemson University taught by John R Cummings in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Matter o Derived from the Latin word “materia” which means “material/timber” o Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. o Matter is composed of chemical elements o Our bodies are made of matter Elements o Elements are substances that cannot be decomposed into smaller substances by ordinary chemical reactions o There are 118 chemical elements and 92 occur naturally. The other 26 are man-made elements The human body contains 24 elements (natural ones) O, C, H, N= 96% All of those above + Ca and P = 99% The other elements in our body are called trace elements States of Matter: Our body possesses all of these states o Solid: Has a definitive form. Bone is solid. The speeds of the molecules decide what state of matter it is. (Slowest form of movement is a solid) o Liquid: No definitive form, but it does have a definitive volume. takes the shape of the container. Plasma in blood, urine. Speed up molecules from solid makes liquid o Gas: no definitive form or volume. The air in our lungs is a gas. Increase molecular motion from liquid makes gas. Energy Derived from the Greek words “en” and “ergon” Energy is the ability to do work In order to put matter into motion, we need energy o Forms of Energy Potential: stored energy. Like a rollercoaster car sitting on the top of the hill. Kinetic: energy in motion. Like the rollercoaster car going down the hill. Chemical: energy that is contained within bonds between elements. In order to release chemical energy we break bonds (kinetic energy). When we increase chemical energy, we create bonds (potential energy). Electrical: the flow of ions in our bodies creates electrical energy. Mechanical: energy required for movement. Wind blowing across a turbine blade is the potential energy that casuse this turbine to turn which is kinetic energy. Electromagnetic: energy that travels in waves. o Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. o No energy conversion is 100% efficient. There will be lost energy. In our bodies, the lot energy generates heat and that’s how we maintain our constant body temperature. Atom o Derived from the Greek word “atomos” o An atom is the smallest unit of matter that can enter a chemical reaction o All elements are composed of atoms o The atoms within the elements are what make the elements reactive. o Composition of atoms Nucleus: center of atom Contains protons and neutrons Protons=positive, neutrons=neutral Electrons Surround the nucleus Constantly in motion Negative charge We must have the same number of protons as we have electrons. Energy levels are regions in which the electrons move around the nucleus most of the time o They are identifies as orbitals or shells o Each orbital has a maximum number of electrons that it can hold. Valence electrons o The number of extra or deficient electrons in the outermost shell/energy level. o The noble gasses are not reactive because they have a full outer shell by themselves. They are inert. o Atoms have Atomic Numbers You can find the atomic number by knowing how many protons an element has o Atoms have an Atomic Mass It is the sum of the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. o Isotope: contains a different number of neutrons then a normal element has. o Columns on periodic table share characteristics o Left side shares electrons, Right side takes electrons Chemical Reactions occur when you combine or break apart atoms forming new products with different properties from the originals o The product will have different properties that the originals (writing this twice for a reason) o Atoms always try to fill their outermost energy level Accomplished by giving up extra electrons, accepting or sharing electrons Chemical reaction is really the interchanging of electrons from element to element. o The making or breaking of bonds o The number of atoms remains the same but they are rearranged o Synthesis: we build things up. Making something from smaller things (elements into a compound) o Decomposition: we break things down (compound into elements) o Exchange: moving ionic components back and forth. The exchange of electrons. Oxidation-reduction: (redox) the exchange of electrons. When an atom accepts an electron it is reduced. When an atom donates an electron it is oxidized. o Reversible: the products revert back to the original. We get equilibrium. o Exergonic: the products have less energy than the reactants. Catabolic o Endergonic: the products have higher energy than the reactants. Anabolic. Molecule o The combination of two or more atoms from a chemical reaction Compound o A substance that can be broken down into two or more other substances by a chemical means o Compounds always contain two or more different elements. Chemical Bonding o Attractive forces that hold together the atoms of a molecule o Types of Bonds Ionic: opposites attract Polar bonds Ions: atoms that have a small excess of electrons will be attracted to elements with a deficiency of electrons. When you give up/gain an electron you are making an atom positive or negatively charged and that is an ion. Positively or negatively charged particles which result when an atom gains or loses electrons o Cations: donates electrons (more protons than electrons o Anions: accept electrons (fewer protons than electrons. Covalent : they will share valence electrons. More stable and more common than ionic bonds. Single covalent bonds: share one pair of electrons Double covalent bonds: sharing two sets of electrons (2 oxygen molecules) Triple covalent bonds: sharing three pairs of electrons. o Covalent bonds can be partially polar or non-polar Hydrogen: technically these are not bonds; they are attractions. When hydrogen is bonded to one atom but is attracted to another (oxygen or nitrogen) Collision Theory: explains how and why chemical reactions occur. Because all particles are constantly in motion, they will bump into each other. If the collision is strong enough, then there is activation energy and bonds are broken and formed. o All particles are in constant motion and continually collide with one another. o If collision provides activation energy, then the bonds are broken or formed. Activation Energy: Collision energy needed for a chemical reaction. . Input of energy is needed. Energy that is necessary to rearrange electrons in a molecule The amount of energy needed to rearrange the electrons of a molecule. Factors that Affect Chemical Reactions o Velocity of colliding particles Temperature: the higher the temperature, the faster the motion. Our bodies are high temperature so that we can keep our body’s molecules moving quickly to make reactions that sustain life. o Energy of colliding particles Temperature Size: smaller things can move faster than larger things. Something big still imparts energy, it is just less that small things. o Concentration of colliding particles: the more particles we have, the more collisions we are going to see. o Catalysts: can effect a chemical reaction. Increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction. Biological catalysts are enzymes. Without these, our body’s reactions would be too slow to keep up alive.