New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 1 Notes

by: Marika O'Hara

Chapter 1 Notes PSYC 101 003

Marika O'Hara

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes for Chapter 1 of Psychology Themes and Variations
Introduction to Psychology
Frederick Wiss
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marika O'Hara on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 003 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Frederick Wiss in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

Popular in Psychology (PSYC)


Reviews for Chapter 1 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/25/16
Chapter  1 Thursday,  August  25,  2016 1:03  PM • "Psychology  is  worth  studying  because  it  provides  a  powerful  way  of  thinking ."   • Psychology  =  psyche  (the  soul)  =  logos  (the  study  of  a  subject) ○ "the  study  of  the  mind" A  New  Science  is  Born • Psychology  comes  from  both  philosophy  and  physiology • Wilhelm  Wundt  campaigned  to  make  psychology  its  own  discipline. • Psychology:  the  scientific  study  of  conscious  experience The  Battle  of  the  "Schools"  Begins:  Structuralism  Versus  Functionalism • First  two  major  schools  of  thought:  structuralism  and  functionalism • Structuralism:  the  task  of  psychology  is  to  analyze  consciousness  into  its  basic   elements  and  investigate  how  to  elements  are  related • Structuralism  depends  on  introspection ○ Introspection:  the  self -­‐observation  of  one's  own  conscious  experience • Functionalists  were  led  by  William  James  (!!!) • Functionalism:  belief  that  psychology  should  investigate  the  function  or  purpose   of  consciousness Freud  Brings  the  Unconscious  into  the  Picture • Freud:  physician  who  attempted  to  treat  mental  disorders • Freud  invented  psychoanalysis • Freud  thought  that  the  unconscious  contains  thoughts,  memories,  and  desires   that  are  well  below  the  surface  of  awareness  but  have  a  lot  of  influence  on   behavior. • Freud's  psychoanalytic  theory  attempted  to  explain  personality  and  mental   disorders  but  focusing  on  factors  in  the  unconscious   Watson  Alters  Psychology's  Course  as  Behaviorism  Makes  Its  Debut • Behaviorism:  founded  by  John  B  Watson • Behaviorism:  theoretical  orientation  based  on  the  premise  that  scientific   psychology  should  study  only  observable  behavior • Watson  wanted  psychologists  not  to  study  consciousness • Behavior:  any  observable  response  or  activity  by  an  organism • Watson  argued  for  the  nurture  side  of  nature  versus  nurture Skinner  Questions  Free  Will  as  Behaviorism  Flourishes • B.F.  Skinner:  internal  mental  events  could  not  be  studied  scientifically • Skinner:  organisms  tend  to  repeat  responses  that  lead  to  positive  outcomes,   and  they  tend  not  to  repeat  responses  that  lead  to  neutral  or  negative   • Behavior:  any  observable  response  or  activity  by  an  organism • Watson  argued  for  the  nurture  side  of  nature  versus  nurture Skinner  Questions  Free  Will  as  Behaviorism  Flourishes • B.F.  Skinner:  internal  mental  events  could  not  be  studied  scientifically • Skinner:  organisms  tend  to  repeat  responses  that  lead  to  positive  outcomes,   and  they  tend  not  to  repeat  responses  that  lead  to  neutral  or  negative   outcomes • Skinner  concluded  that  free  will  is  an  illusion The  Humanists  Revolt • Humanism:  a  theoretical  orientation  that  emphasizes  the  unique  qualities  of   humans,  especially  freedom  and  potential  for  personal  growth • Humanists  take  optimistic  view  of  human  nature • Carl  Rogers:  human  behavior  is  governed  by  each  individuals  sense  of  self Psychology's  Modern  History Psychology  Comes  of  Age  as  a  Profession • Clinical   psychology:  branch  concerned   with  the  diagnosis  and  treatment  of   psychological   problems  and  disorders • Many  psychologists  were  recruited   to  help  screen  military  recruits  and  help   soliders  with  trauma Psychology  Returns  to  Its  Roots:  Renewed  Interest  in  Cognition  and  Physiology • Cognition:  the  mental  process  involved  in  acquiring  knowledge • Cognitive  theorists  argue  that  psychology  should  include  stdying  internal   mental  events  to  understand  behavior Psychology  Broadens  Its  Horizons:  Increased  Interest  in  Cultural  Diversity • Recently,  Western  psychologists  have  begun  to  realize   that  things  should  not   only  be  looked  at  through  the  lens  of  Western  culture • Many  psychologists  now  incorporate   cultural  factors  into  their  research Research  Areas  in  Psychology • Areas:  developmental  psychology,  social  psychology,  educational  psychology,   health  psychology,  physiological  psychology,  experimental  psychology,  cognitive   psychology,  psychometrics,  personality Professional  Specialties  in  Psychology • Four  main  professional  specialties:  clinical  psychology,  counseling  psychology,   school  psychology,  and  industrial/organizational  psychology • Clinical  psychologists  have  doctoral  degrees  while  psychiatrists  go  to  med   school • Psychiatry:  branch  of  medicine  concerned  with  the  diagnosis  and  treatment  of   psychological  problems  and  disorders Seven  Unifying  Themes Themes  Related  to  Psychology  as  a  Field  of  Study • Theme  1:  Psychology  is  Empirical ○ Empiricism:   premise  that  knowledge  should  be  acquired  through   observation psychological  problems  and  disorders Seven  Unifying  Themes Themes  Related  to  Psychology  as  a  Field  of  Study • Theme  1:  Psychology  is  Empirical ○ Empiricism:   premise  that  knowledge  should  be  acquired  through   observation • Theme  2:  Psychology  is  Theoretically   Diverse ○ Theory:  a  system  of  interrelated   ideas  used  to  explain   a  set  of   observations • Theme  3:  Psychology  Evolves  in  a  Sociohistorical   Context Themes  Related  to  Psychology's  Subject  Matter • Theme  4:  Behavior  is  Determined   by  Multiple  Causes • Theme  5:  Behavior  is  Shaped  by  Cultural  Heritage ○ Culture:  the  widely  shared  customs,  beliefs,  values,  norms,  institutions,   and  other  products  of  a  community  that  are  transmitted  social  across   generations • Theme  6:  Heredity  and  Environment  Jointly  Influence  Behavior • Theme  7:  People's  Experience   of  the  World  is  Highly  Subjective


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.