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I'm just doing this so I don't get fined (required sample)

by: Blake Koeval

I'm just doing this so I don't get fined (required sample) BIO-1801

Marketplace > Appalachian State University > Biology > BIO-1801 > I m just doing this so I don t get fined required sample
Blake Koeval

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Biological Concepts I
Dr. Bouldin
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Blake Koeval on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO-1801 at Appalachian State University taught by Dr. Bouldin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biological Concepts I in Biology at Appalachian State University.


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Date Created: 08/25/16
Cold or wet weather makes you sick It is interesting that this chapter is titled “Cold or wet weather makes you sick” when the chapter  discusses nothing about links between wet weather and getting sick, it simply focuses on cold  weather.  Also, it appears that the authors of the book took this myth very literally because the  implication in this chapter is that people believe that the cold actually causes colds, which some  people may still believe; however, this is hardly the myth in the twenty­first century because the  prospect of cold weather directly causing illness is ridiculous.  Other noteworthy observations of  this chapter are that it is a measly three paragraphs long, offering hardly any evidence for either  side of the argument and only vaguely cites two studies, neither providing any quantifiable  evidence for the points which they are arguing.    Most people living in the twenty­first century agree that there is no direct relationship between  cold weather and catching colds.  However, there are multiple valid arguments for how cold  weather might indirectly cause colds by triggering responses in the body which can weaken the  body’s defenses against the rhinovirus.  The main two theories of the ways that the body’s  defense systems can be weakened by cold weather are a weakening of the body’s immune  system by hypothermia, and vasoconstriction (primarily in the nose).  When it is cold outside, the body has to work harder to maintain a healthy internal temperature.   Putting in this extra work, some attention is taken away from the body’s immune system, leaving the body more prone to infection than usual.  At the same time, it has been found that the  rhinovirus replicates better at a temperature of about 91F as opposed to the body’s normal  98.6F.  Therefore, any slight lowering of the body’s temperature would allow the rhinovirus to  replicate more easily.  Of course, if adequate clothing is worn and the body’s internal  temperature is kept at a healthy level, simply being out in the cold will not put an individual at a  greater risk of catching a cold.   The other main theory linking cold weather to illness is the vasoconstriction that cold and dry  weather causes inside the nose.  Vasoconstriction is when blood vessels shrink up, and in this  case, the focus is on the shrinking of blood vessels in the nose.  When cold, dry air hits the inside of the nose, the vasoconstriction that occurs leaves the nose prone to infection.  This is because  the inside of the nose becomes dry and is unable to filter out diseases that it would usually be  able to filter.  When it comes to the rhinovirus this is unfortunate because the rhinovirus  specifically attacks the nose; thus, if the nose is exposed to the rhinovirus when the it is in a  weakened state, the nose is much more likely to become infected than if it were to be in a fully  functional state.   A theory about how cold weather can indirectly cause colds that isn’t based on the body’s  physiological responses is that cold weather causes people stay inside more often.  When people  congregate in places more often and in larger numbers than usual, it makes sense that illness  would be spread more easily.  This was the one argument that the authors of Don’t Swallow  Your Gum! used to portray the argument that cold weather does in fact make the body more  prone to the rhinovirus, which is a decent argument, but not the strongest argument of people  who still do think there is a definite link between cold weather and catching colds.  Thus, a  reasonable conclusion of the chapter “Cold or wet weather makes you sick” is that the author  who wrote it was poorly informed of the argument surrounding the controversy that he or she  was writing about.     References Melone, L. (2012, November 9). Can the Cold Give You a Cold? (P. Bass, Ed.). Retrieved  September 15, 2015, from­and­flu/colds­and­the­ weather.aspx Mozes, A. (2015, January 6). Researchers Probe Why Colds Are More Likely in Winter.  Retrieved September 15, 2015, from­and­ flu/news/20150106/researchers­probe­why­colds­are­more­likely­in­winter 


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