Theories of Personality Lecture 3
Theories of Personality Lecture 3 PSYC 3570
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3570 at Auburn University taught by Elissa Hack in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 08/25/16
Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 The Psychoanalytic Approach: Freudian Theory, Application, and Assessment Chapter Outline Freud discovers the unconscious Freudian theory of personality Application: Psychoanalysis Assessment: Projective tests Strengths and criticisms of Freud’s theory Freud Discovers the Unconscious Studies in Hysteria, published by Freud and Breuer Hysteria Only physical illnesses (ie blind, deaf, paralysis) Categorized mainly for women Case of Anna O. and use of hypnosis in treating hysteria Hypnosis to get to the root of the problem Anna O Paralysis in left arm Only spoke in English when native tongue is German Having hallucinations Issues stemmed from death of father Free association: Description of hidden memories by patients, that seemed related to the causes and cure of hysterical symptoms Taps into unconscious & gets to the root of the issues Early traumatic sexual experiences were responsible for hysterical symptoms expressed by adult patients Vienna Psychoanalytic Society Formed by Freud and his followers Huge influence in psychoanalysis Originally mocked by the community. Considered scandalous Topographic Model Personality is divided into different levels of awareness Limited à had no structure Conscious: Thoughts a person is currently aware of Constantly changing. What we think about on a day to day basis or in our mind at that specific moment Preconscious: Retrievable information Easily reachable/remembered Example: what we ate for breakfast Unconscious: Thoughts that cannot be easily brought into awareness Except under extreme situations Determines our behavior Freud thought this could only be brought out through hypnosis Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Structural Model Divides personality into the id, the ego, and the superego Id: Personality structure at birth Actions are based on pleasure principle and wish fulfillment Dreams are a type of wish fulfillment à Satisfying id impulses in a safe environment Unconscious, no control Selfish instincts/motivations Concerned about satisfies own needs. Example: babies want what they want when they want it Ego: Satisfies id impulses, but takes into consideration the realities of the world (socially acceptable) Actions are based on reality principle Impulse control Keeping unconscious under control for safety reasons Superego: Represents society’s values and standards Provides ideals to determine if a behavior is virtuous Powerful superego leads to moral anxiety Moral restrictions on what can/cannot do Can be over or under developed depending on parenting style (how your parents raised you) Over à perfectionist Under à immature. Lacking morals. (ie theft, promiscuity) Figure 3.1 - Relationship of the Id, Ego, and Superego to the Three Levels of Awareness id is entirely unconscious ego/super ego hit all 3 stages Libido and Thanatos o 2 driving factors to behavior Triebe - Strong internal forces that motivates human behavior Referred to as drives or instincts Categories of instincts Libido - Life or sexual instinct Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Anything that motivates us to have pleasure Thanatos - Death or aggressive instinct Desire to die and return to earth Entirely unconscious Most human behavior is attributed to the life instinct Includes action aimed at receiving pleasure Death instinct is turned outward and expressed as aggression against others rather than self destructive behaviors Wish to die remains unconscious Defense Mechanisms Techniques of ego to deal with unwanted thoughts and desires and reduce or avoid anxiety Neurotic anxiety Id impulses are so strong & ego is trying to control them we have a sudden feeling of anxiety that id (unconscious desires) will burst thru our awareness barrier and the ego wont be able to control/prevent it Repression Active effort by the ego to push threatening material out of consciousness Requires ego to expand a constant amount of energy to control/ignore id Freud believes we only have a certain amount of psychic energy. So repression isn’t good because it takes up a lot of energy which then cant be used to perform everyday functions in life Trying not to think or remember traumatic event Most important according to Freud Sublimation Channeling threatening unconscious impulses into socially acceptable actions Productive in nature Getting mad at someone à going to the gym to burn steam rather than punching someone in the face because that’s not socially acceptable Using less psychic energy because ego isn’t trying to control id. Its taking impulses & channeling it in healthier way Displacement Channeling impulses to nonthreatening objects Displaced impulses do not lead to social rewards Taking anger out on a friend rather than the person you’re actually mad at Denial Refusal to accept that certain facts exist Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Extreme form of defense Makes a person less realistic Old man refusing to accept that his wife died. Still buying her gifts, talking to her picture pretending she’s alive Impairs social functioning Most immature defense mechanism Reaction formation Acting in a manner opposite to threatening unconscious desires Proving unconscious wrong Intellectualization Removal of emotional content from the thought Helps bring difficult thoughts into consciousness without anxiety Example: If a wife thinks about their husband dying in a car accident the ego intellectualizes it saying they were pondering the importance of seat belt safety Projection Attributing unconscious impulse to other people Frees a person from the perception that he/she is the one who holds a certain thought Example: Thinking spouse was having an affair because you were thinking of having an affair Psychosexual Stages of Development Sequence of development made up of stages characterized by primary erogenous zones and sexual desires Each stage has a specific influence on the adult personality Adult personalities of people are greatly influenced by the events of early childhood We should move thru each “stage” expending little amount of psychic energy. But if we get stuck at a stage or expend to much energy that we run out it can lead to personality disorders in adulthood due to the fact that we don’t have any energy left for every day life Fixation - Stagnation of psychic energy Results when a child is unable to move through a particular stage Oral stage First 18 months of life Primary erogenous zones - Mouth, lips, and tongue Feeding problems can result in fixation and development of an oral personality Example: Having issues feeding with a bottle, breast feeding Fixation leads to an Oral personality Example: a smoker, and alcoholic, binge eater Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Anal stage Primary erogenous zone - Anal region Children are toilet trained Traumatic toilet training can result in fixation and development of an anal personality Example: Being anal or uptight (orderly, stubborn) Overly generous Phallic stage Ages 3 to 6 People start discovering bodies, notice sexuality Key developmental stage Primary erogenous zone - Penis or clitoris Oedipus (boys)/ Electra (girls) complex - Children develop a sexual attraction for their opposite-sex parent Freud believed oedipal complex will never disappear. Men with aggressive personalities are displacing his unconscious competitive feelings for his father onto other people Boys develop castration anxiety Fear Father will sever sexual feelings for his mother and castrate him. Causes them not to have desire for his mother anymore Girls develop penis envy Girls notice they don’t have a penis like boys. Feeling inferior and jealous Eventually the children repress their desire for their opposite-sex parent Latency stage Sexual desires abate Boys and girls are uninterested in each other Genital stage Initiated at puberty Primary erogenous zone - Adult genital regions Libido kicks in and starts pleasure urges Getting at Unconscious Material Strong id impulses do not disappear when they are pushed out of consciousness Expressed in a altered form Unconscious thoughts can be noticed by observing innocent behaviors Getting at Unconscious Material Techniques to get unconscious material Dreams Provide id impulses with a stage for expression Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Trained psychoanalysts can identify common dream symbols Manifest content What actual is in the dream Latent content How psychoanalyis interprets dream Road to ther unconcious Type of wish fulfillment to express unconcious desires Projective tests: Assesses unconscious material by asking test takers to respond to ambiguous stimuli Identifying objects, telling a story, or drawing a picture Example: Inkblot test Free association Used to temporarily bypass the censoring mechanism employed by ego Puts you in a relaxed state so the ego doesn’t feel threatened and can expose strange, uncensored ideas Most important according to Freud Freudian slips: Misstatements or slips of the lounge May represent unconscious associations Hypnosis Allows the hypnotist/therapist to bypass the ego and get directly to unconscious material Drawback - Not everyone is responsive How Freud first started his studies with unconscious material Used to prove that there was an unconscious. People were saying random things they wouldn’t normally say. Something was going on below the surface Accidents Intentional actions stemming from unconscious impulses Resistance - Deliberate effort by the unconscious mind to cover threatening unconscious material Example: If I was mad at my friend, so I went and wore her favorite pair of jeans to a party and accidently ripped a hole in them. Freud would argue those were my id impulses coming to the surface. Making her hurt like she hurt me When people start resisting that means you’re close to tapping into the unconscious (according to Freud) Symbolic behavior Daily behaviors can be interpreted as symbolic representations of unconscious desires Poses no threat to the ego Example: Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 If a boys mom really liked daisies. When he got mad at her he went a bought a “welcome mat” with daisies on it and took great pleasure in stomping the dirt off his shoes before he walked in the house. That’s his way of releasing anger Application: Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis: System of psychotherapy that focuses on uncovering the unconscious material responsible for a patient’s disorder Primary goal - Bring crucial unconscious material into consciousness for rational examination Unconscious material must be dealt in a manner to avoid manifestation of new disorders Issues with psychoanalysis Requires several hour-long therapy sessions to get to the unconscious because there are so many mechanisms in place to keep it down Therapy is a progression very expensive Maximum time is spent in getting at the crucial unconscious material causing the disorder Requires the therapist to actively interpret the significance of client’s statements, behaviors, and dreams Could over whelm client and lead to development of resistance by client Development of transference is very important Displacing of emotions associated with people from past situations onto the therapist Delicate and crucial part of the therapy process Countertransference is inadmissible Studies indicate psychoanalytic therapies are effective in treating several psychological disorders But due to expenses economically and timewise its in debate whether or not it should still be used and a type of therapy Assessment: Projective Tests Rorschach inkblot test Predicts behavior from responses to inkblots Designed by Hermann Rorschach Not valid or reliable Mainly used as a starting point if at all If there’s a common theme the psychoanalysis can interpret and determine unconscious desires. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Test takers are asked to tell a story about a series of ambiguous pictures Designed by Henry Murray Human Figure Drawing test Measures intelligence and important personality constructs Used as an indicator of psychological problems in children If all the figures were disturbed or unhappy could indicate something going on at home or some kind of mental disorder Figure 3.2 - Human Figure Drawings by Emotionally Disturbed Children Evaluation of Projective Tests Criticisms of Rorschach inkblot test Low indices of reliability and lack of evidence for the validity of the test to indicate behavior No good theory behind them No scientific basis for justifying the use of Rorschach scales in psychological assessment Reviewers find usefulness of the test when results from various studies are analyzed Newer systems for coding Rorschach responses are reliable than earlier methods Usage of projective tests extends beyond psychotherapy Evaluation of social and emotional adjustment Psychologists working with law enforcement and court officials Validity of projective tests remains open to challenge Strengths First comprehensive theory of human behavior and personality Chapter 3 Lecture Notes August 25, 2016 Freud’s observations set the direction for subsequent personality theory and research First system of psychotherapy Freud’s techniques have become standard tools for many therapists Promoted important psychological concepts Criticisms Writers argue that Freud’s ideas are not original Freudian ideas appear in literature that predates Freud’s work Hypotheses generated from the theory are not testable No way to prove interpretations Didn’t report his mess ups. Only reported positive results Disagreements with the points of emphasis and tone of Freud’s theory Didn’t talk about anything after puberty