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Bio Basics

by: Lowrey Notetaker
Lowrey Notetaker
Virginia Tech

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About this Document

Intro of biology and science
Principles of Biology
Dr. Glen Stevens
Class Notes
Biology, taxonomy, Cell, Classification
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lowrey Notetaker on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1105 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Glen Stevens in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 08/25/16
Intro to Bio Monday, August 22, 2016 11:22 AM CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING SYSTEMS (Organisms) 1. Organisms have cells 2. Organisms store and process information (internal and external) 3. Organisms transform energy 4. Organisms grow and reproduce (continuity of life) 5. Living systems adapt and evolve (individuals cannot evolve, but populations can) LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION Cell --> Tissue --> Organ --> Organ system --> Organism --> Population --> Species --> Community --> Ecosystem --> Biosphere PREDICTIONS BY DARWIN AND NATURAL SELECTION - Fossil record (links between bone structure of hands/paws/wings) - Age of the Earth - Mechanism of heredity - Comparative anatomy (homologous structure) - Molecular evidence (phylogenetic tree) CELL THEORY 1. All organisms are composed of cells 2. Cells are the smallest living things 3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells a. All cells today represent a continuous line of descent from the 1st living cell CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS - Facilitates study of life and communication between biologists - Influenced by phenotypic and genotypic comparisons - Taxonomy and systematics (evolutionary relationships) - Binomial system by Carolus Linnaeus - Domain --> Kingdom --> Phylum --> Class --> Order --> Family --> Genus --> Species THEMES OF BIOLOGY 1. Living systems are organized into cells (Cell Theory) 2. Molecular basis of inheritance explains the continuity of life 3. Relationship between structure and function underlies living systems 4. Diversity of life arises by evolutionary change 5. Evolutionary conservation explains the unity of living systems 6. Cells are information-processing systems 7. Living systems exist in a nonequilibrium state VOCAB Applied research Basic research Binomial naming system- Latin names in italics of genus then species Biology Cell Cell theory Characteristics (of life) Common ancestor Community- all of the species inhabiting a common environment and interacting with one another Control experiment- independent variable is not altered Controlled variables Deductive reasoning- applies general principles to predict specific results (math and phil) Dependent variable- the variable that is measured in an experiment Descriptive science Ecosystem- a major interacting system that includes organisms and their nonliving environment (biotic and abiotic factors) Emergent properties- properties produced from interactions from lower levels Eukaryote- cell with membrane-bound organelles and has a nucleus Genotype- organism's genetic material that contributes to phenotype Hierarchical units Intro to Bio Page 1 Hierarchical units Homeodomain proteins- play a role in development of eukaryotes, approx 1850 exist Homeostasis- maintaining a stable internal environment in an organism Hypothesis- suggested explanation that accounts for preliminary observations Hypothesis-driven science Independent variable- the variable that is altered by the experimenters in the experiment Inductive reasoning- specific to general principles Observation Organelle Organism Phenotype- observable feature, affected by environmental factors Phylogenetic tree- evolutionary history by tracing changes in gene sequence (one common ancestor) Population- any group of individuals, usually of a single species occupying a given area at the same time Prediction Prokaryote- cell lacking membrane-bound organelles Pseudoscience Question Reductionism- breaks larger systems into their component parts (used in biochem to determine pathways, etc) but can't always predict emergent properties Science Scientific method- Observation --> Question --> Hypothesis --> Prediction --> Experiment --> Conclusion Scientific theory- concepts and hypotheses that have consistently been supported by experimentation Systems biology Taxonomic rank- Test Experiment- independent variable is unaltered Intro to Bio Page 2


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